To What Extent Was The Usa A Racist Society Between 1919 And 1941?

854 words - 4 pages

The USA was a racist society to a large extent between 1919 and 1941, however it peaked in the years during and immediately after the Depression, as blacks and immigrants faced antagonism due to their holding of jobs, however menial they were. Whilst some gains were made in the black rights movement, there were still underlying racist tones throughout the country.Racism, especially towards African Americans, was ingrained in the average white American's mind, and existed throughout the 1920s. The strong racism faced by blacks in the south resulted in the Great Migrations to the North. However, the treatment of blacks in the North didn't substantially differ from that in the South. "I discovered that Plainfield [New Jersey] was as segregated as the South…I didn't see any difference, because the theatres were segregated, the hospitals were segregated, the churches of course." (Rebecca Taylor.) Black families with enough money to afford better housing than the crowded, dirty, urban slums in the cities, struggled to make a purchase because of racial prejudice. The Federal Housing Authority, an organisation to protect homeowners and make mortgages easier to obtain, used a system that discriminated against black loan applicants seeking mortgages for house in areas where there was a mix of different peoples. "If a neighbourhood is to retain its stability, it is necessary that properties continue to be occupied by the same social and racial classes." (Underwriting Manual, 1939)"The Great Depression was, of course, an economic disaster for most Americans, but black people suffered a disproportionate share of the burden."(McElvaine). During the Great Depression, and extending to the start of World War II, African Americans found themselves competing with white Americans who were now competing with them for menial and unskilled jobs. Whites demanded that blacks be fired in jobs such as domestic servants, garbage collectors, elevator operators, waiter, and subsequently, black workers were the first to be fired when the Depression hit. By 1932, black unemployment reached roughly 50% nationwide. Slogans such as "No jobs for Niggers until every white man has a job" were adopted by racist white groups throughout the country. "there will be no Negroes pushing wheelbarrows and boys driving trucks getting 40 cents an hour when the good white men and women, working on the fields alongside these roads can hardly earn 40 cents a day." The words of a Georgian official. As more white men became unemployed , there was increasing antagonism towards afro-Americans who held jobs, resulting in the number of lynchings increasing from 8 in 1932 to 28 in 1933. Blacks who kept their jobs suffered great hardship, with a 1935 study showing that black workers experienced an average wage drop of nearly 50% since the onset of the DepressionThe increased racism in US society during this time resulted in groups such as the Ku-Klux-Klan rising in prominence. "Ku Klux practices were being resume din the certainty that dead men did not only tell no tales but created vacancies"(McElvaine) However, the KKK had been practicing racist behavior throughout the 1920s as well. The number of lynchings by the KKK from 1918 to 1927 totalled 416 African Americans, mostly in the South. In Florida, when two black men attempted to vote in November 1920 in Ocoee, Orange County, the Klan attacked the black community. In the ensuing violence, six black residents and two whites were killed, and twenty five black homes were destroyed. Racial conflict existed between the KKK and other races apart from blacks during this period. In reaction to the social changes occurring in America in this period, the Klan adopted anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist and anti-immigrant slants. The social unrest of the postwar period included labour strikes over low wages and working conditions in many industrial cities, often led by immigrants, who also organised unions. Klan members worried about labour organisers and socialist backgrounds of some of the immigrants, which added to the tensions. They also resented upwardly mobile ethnic Catholics or any others they identified as foreigners.Mexicans were also discriminated against during this period. During the Depression about 40000 Mexicans had entered the USA legally, with another 1-2 million illegally. Like African Americans, the majority of Mexicans were illiterate and unskilled, and as a result received similar racist treatment from whites. In the years during the Depression, 400000 Mexican Americans were illegally deported from the South West, in order that whites could get more jobs or government relief.Racist attitudes continued through the 1930s and up until the Second World War. Americans saw Asians as inferior, and when Japan rise to prominence in the Pacific, policies were enacted in order to keep the "yellows" out. "Yellow fever" swept the nation throughout the 1930s, and states such as California banned Japanese immigrants completely.BibliographY:Dixon, T. Key Features of Modern History, Oxford University Press, 2005.



2112 words - 9 pages TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THERE A "MID TUDOR CRISIS" DURING THE REIGNS OF EDWARD VI AND MARY I? "The mid-Tudor crisis" is a term often used by historians to describe the reigns of Edward VI (1547-1553) and Mary I (1553-1558). This period can be seen as a crisis, due to the fact that there were so many problems financially, socially, religiously and constitutionally, which led to rebellions, and placed the country in a very unstable position.It is

to what extent was romanticism a reaction to the enlightenment - University of Brighton - essay

1912 words - 8 pages zelal aktas 1/25/18 CTWT ESSAY 2 To what extent was Romanticism a reaction to Enlightenment values? Although it appears Romanticism is a complete contrast to the Enlightenment values that comes before it, such as the importance of objective thought, the necessity to think with reason and logic and more. However, upon further study of the literature and ideas that Romanticism portrays, I would argue that it is more of a development of the

To What Extent Was There A "New Consciousness Of Self" In The Twelfth Century?

2465 words - 10 pages we look at the Benedictines, the Cistercians, the Franciscan and Dominican friars, the Cathars, Waldensians or any heretical movement one rule holds true; their constant analysis of other orders also caused a process of continual self examination and redefinition. The knock-on effect of this was that each member knew exactly what was his role was, and it was integral that he complied with this if he was to fulfil his role in society. Another

What was the relationship between masculinity and chivalry in medieval society? - Medieval History - Essay

3742 words - 15 pages B074116 What was the relationship between masculinity and chivalry in medieval society? The figure of the knight or chevalier dominates the image of the medieval world. Arthurian Romance and troubadour lyrics tell stories of heroes, damsels in distress and lavish courts filled with women of beauty and men of honour. Looking at chivalry in such a romanticized way results in viewing it as being a purely positive force in society that helped to

What Problems Did The Weimar Republic Face Between 1919 And 1923?

529 words - 3 pages The Weimar Republic was formed in the town of Weimar in February 1919 when a new German National Assembly was formed after the war. It was a democracy where everybody could vote. The parliament was called the Reichstag.The Weimar Republic had some enemies from both the left and the right. The opposition from the left came from the Spartakus, a group of communists that hoped to take over the Government, and were representing the workers of

To what extent was Diocletian’s Tetrarchy characterised by a rejection of dynastic principles? - univeristy - essay

1926 words - 8 pages Free To what extent was Diocletian’s Tetrarchy characterised by a rejection of dynastic principles? The notions of dynasty and hereditary rights were some of the cornerstones of Roman society from the earliest times. The view that clients, property and influence (among a great deal of other things) were inherited via your family was central to life in the empire. Since the initiating of the principate with Augustus in 27 BC, the emperors were

To what extent was homosexuality the norm in classical Athens - Ancient History - Essay

4303 words - 18 pages Free [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] 1693552 To what extent was homosexuality seen as a deviation from the norm for a classical Athenian male citizen? Athenian homosexuality is a huge topic, which has stimulated vast scholarly debate. The Athenians themselves were very confused regarding homosexuality, which makes our understanding of it even harder. It is important to recognize that their norm and our norm are vastly different ideas, they had no

Daisy Miller, by Henry James: (I) To what extent is Daisy Miller's character a reflection of the American character? (II) Was Henry James' ending artistically necessary?

495 words - 2 pages scale, it is the death of possibility and potential: the makings of something great. America is a young nation, fearlessly changing, constantly evolving. However, America, like all other nations, will grow old someday, steeped in its established "traditions" and "customs---" discriminating against others without realizing that it was once a discriminated entity as well. To preserve this American institution of fluidity, sanguinity, and vibrancy, it was artistically necessarily for Daisy Miller to die young, while she was still filled with a hedonistic vivacity.

A 6 Page Double Space Paper I Had To Do Last Year In MS1. The Assignment Was To Pick 3 USA Branches And State Why I'd Want To Chose Them As A Career

1307 words - 6 pages C/PVT Hopper, David CharlesMS 1100Career Branch ChoicesSpeaking as a newly appointed second lieutenant in the US Army, my three choices of main service would be quite varied. In no particular order they would be Air-Defense Artillery, Aviation, and Infantry. I've always liked the idea of flying, be it transport or actual combat vehicles wouldn't matter to me. I would like to fly attack or combat support choppers though. I've always wanted the

To what extent was the German Reformation caused by humanist criticisms of the Catholic Church? - Essay Reformation - Essay

1283 words - 6 pages To what extent was the German Reformation caused by humanist criticisms of the Catholic Church? To say the German Reformation was caused by humanist criticisms of the Catholic Church is true to only a small extent. Despite some historians saying ‘no humanism, no reformation [?] this is incorrect. Although the criticisms made by humanists contributed to making the reformation more likely, to say it was the cause of the reformation is only true to

to what extto what extent are roles and responsibilities changing within the household - sociology - essay

1458 words - 6 pages To what extent are roles and responsibilities changing? (24 marker) Families are viewed by functionalists as a nuclear family structure, which consists of a father, mother and approximated two children. According to Murdock every society has a form of nuclear family structure, which is the majority type of family in every society that he investigated. However, family structures have gradually changed for several reasons, and different family

To what extent was the rise of the Nazi Party due to the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic - HSC Modern History - Essay

1244 words - 5 pages To what extent was the rise of the Nazi Party due to the weaknesses of the Weimar Republic? While the weaknesses of the Weimar republic played a crucial role in the rise of the NSDAP, without the prolonged and devastating impact of the Great Depression Hitler would not have come to power. The inherent weaknesses of the Weimar constitution meant continuous political instability while the association of the democratic system with the defeat of WWI

To what extent has the Modern Revolution been a positive or negative force? - John cgrew - Essay

647 words - 3 pages To what extent has the Modern Revolution been a positive or negative force? The modern revolution has been a positive force to a somewhat large extent. This is due to the various innovations that it brought such as steam locomotive and computers which have revolutionised the way humans interact with the world. The modern revolution also brought major advancements in medical science which improved the lives of millions and raised the average life

DBQ 1999: To What Extent Had The Colonists Developed A Sense Of Their Identity And Unity As Americans By The Eve Of The Revolution?

377 words - 2 pages The hardships that the American colonists faced in the colonies from 1750 to 1776 resulted in them having a sense of identity and unity as Americans. Many other factors such as geography and culture played a big role too.The French and Indian War and other conflicts proved to the world that America was a formable opponent. The French and Indian War was fought over the Ohio Valley; the British saw the French as a threat since the colonies were

To what extent did the economic hardship contributed to the rise to power of a dictator - mount carmrl collage - history

991 words - 4 pages To what extent did economic hardship contribute to the rise to power of a dictator? A dictator is someone who has absolute power or who at least behaves as if they do by bossing others around. In government, a dictator is a ruler who has total control over the country, with no checks or balances to prevent abuse of power. When Hitler was appointed the chancellor, Germany was under the influence of a dictatorship. The death of President