Information about genetics
· Tourette’s is a genetic neurological disorder that causes verbal and motor tics.
· It is estimated that 0.3% to 0.8% of the world’s population has Tourette’s.
· As with many other neurological disorders, males have Tourette’s more frequently than females. It is suggested that this is because females have a larger basal ganglion.
· Twin studies show that although Tourette’s is an inherited disorder, there is a lot of variability in its expression based on environmental factors.
· Studies suggest that mutations in many different genes combine to cause Tourette’s Syndrome. This makes it a genetically complex multigene disorder.
More about genes
· TS is neither a dominant nor recessive disorder.
- A carrier has a 50% chance of passing genes associated with
TS to his/her children, but TS symptoms are not always expressed.
· It may show up as a milder tic disorder, or as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or Attention Deficit Disorder with or without the association of tics.
· Pedigree analysis is not applicable to TS because the disorder is passed through many different genes on different chromosomes.
· Tics- Sudden brief, irregular movements or sounds that range from simple to complex
· Premonitory urge - An uncomfortable bodily sensation (itch, tingle or tension) that is relieved by expressing a tic.
Sudden, brief, and repetitive. Involve few muscle groups.
Distinct, coordinated patterns of movements. Involve many muscle groups.
- Eye blinking
- Head jerking
- Shoulder shrugging
- Finger flexing
- Throat Clearing
- Grunting sounds
- Smelling or touching objects
- Flapping the arms
- Touching the nose
- Using different tones of voice
-Coprolalia (the involuntary and repetitive use of obscene language, as a symptom of mental illness or organic brain disease)
-Echolalia (meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words)