Transcription And Translation - Biology GT - Scientific Essay

946 words - 4 pages

DNA goes through the central dogma before amino acids (protein monomers) are made. The central dogma describes the two-step process, transcription, and translation, by which the information in genes flows into proteins: DNA RNA protein. Before the central dogma takes place, DNA goes through replication. Replication is the process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA. DNA has to go through a central dogma stage called Transcription. Transcription is the first step of gene expression where an RNA polymer is created from a DNA template. Transcription uses DNA strands as templates to produce ribonucleic acid molecules. Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are nucleic acid molecules that are similar to DNA but contain ribose rather than deoxyribose. During transcription, first, enzymes split apart base pairs and unwind the DNA double helix. Next, the free nucleotides in the cell find their complementary bases along the new strands with the help of RNA polymerase. A polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA or RNA polymers whose sequence is complementary to the original template. Then, the sugar-phosphate backbone is assembled to complete the RNA strand and separate from the DNA strand.

The sequence of DNA bases is transcribed through transcription into the reciprocal sequence of bases in the RNA strand. The information of the DNA molecule is passed through transcription to the new RNA strand, which can then transport the information to where the proteins are made. The RNA molecules used for this purpose are called messenger RNAs (mRNAs). mRNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. A gene is a particular DNA segment. A gene expression is a process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. The sequence of bases in the gene specifies the sequence of nucleotides along the RNA molecule. Transcription uses the template strand, the strand used by DNA or RNA polymerase to attach complementary bases during DNA replication or RNA transcription, respectively. The RNA product is complementary to the template strand, but it's almost identical to the non-template strand, the DNA strand that is complementary to the template DNA strand during transcription. Gene Using a DNA template, the RNA polymerase produces a new RNA molecule through base pairing. RNA polymerase always produces a new RNA line in the 5' to 3' direction. RNA polymerase produces an mRNA strand by attaching complementary nucleotides Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine to the DNA strand template. Uracil is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA which is replaced in DNA by thymine. As the RNA molecule grows, it gets separated from the template strand. The ...

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