Anatomy & physiology
About Typhoid Fever
Typhoid Fever, also known simply as Typhoid, is an infection caused by a strain of bacteria called Salmonella typhii,
which is related to the bacteria that causes salmonella food poisoning. The infection can affect the whole body and
damage multiple organs. Unless treated, this infection can have life threatening consequences. The acute illness is
characterized by prolonged fever, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, and constipation or sometimes diarrhea.
Symptoms are often non-specific and clinically non-distinguishable from other febrile illnesses. However, clinical
severity varies and severe cases may lead to serious complications or even death. It occurs predominantly in
association with poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or
detecting the bacterium’s DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow. Culturing the bacterium can be difficult. Bone
marrow testing is the most accurate. Symptoms are similar to that of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a
Causes, Sign and Symptom of Typhoid Fever
Typhoid Fever is contracted by the ingestion of the bacteria in contaminated food or water. Patients with acute illness
can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria.
Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. About 3%-5% of patients become carriers of the
bacteria after the acute illness. Some patients suffer a very mild illness that goes unrecognized. These patients can
become long-term carriers of the bacteria. The bacteria multiply in the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver and passes into
the bowel. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage. These chronic carriers may have no symptoms
and can be the source of new outbreaks of typhoid fever for many years.
Typhoid Fever is common in parts of the world where levels of sanitation and hygiene are poor and there is a higher
risk of ingesting contaminated drinking water.
An estimated 16 to 33 million cases occur worldwide each year leading to approximately 216,000 deaths, according to
the World Health Organization. Children and younger adults between the ages of 5 and 19 years are at the greatest risk
of infection. The incubation period is usually 1-2 weeks, and the duration of the illness is about 3-4 weeks.
PLOS ( Public Library of Science) a nonprofit open access science, estimated that 17.8 million cases of typhoid fever
occur each year in LMICs...