This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Were The Promises And Agreements Made Between The Arabs, French, And British During The First World War Which Led To The Formation Of The Middle East Compatible?

2355 words - 10 pages

"For by superior energies; more strict affiance in each other; faith more firm in their unhallowed principles, the bad have fairly earned a victory over the weak, the vacillating, inconsistent good."--William WordsworthWere the promises and agreements made between the Arabs, French, and British during the First World War compatible?The formation of the Middle East oft conjures up the image of Allied delegates huddled hawklike about a conference table littered with outdated maps, armed with pencils arbitrarily etching out the provisional boundaries of their post-war booty. A crude image, which depicts an era of imperialistic ambitions, where hungry, war-wrought nations were eager to reap the ...view middle of the document...

The phrase "the Middle East" used to describe the vague geographical entity between Arabia and India only gained currency in the early 1900s. However, the Middle East as a reality composed of a patchwork of states was crafted by the French and British powers in the post-war settlement concluded by 1922, based on a blueprint provided by the Sykes-Picot agreement. Five new distinct states had ultimately been carved out of the moribund Ottoman Empire- Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq. Palestine was placed under a British mandate and so too was Iraq which was governed, although only nominally by an Arab hireling of the British. France, meanwhile, had succeeded, despite drawn out, lengthy negotiations and British artifice, in obtaining mandates for Lebanon and Syria. Transjordan had merely been cleaved off Palestine for which a puppet Arab regime had been setup while the Hashemite ruler of independent Arabia was ousted, by his archrival, from his holy station and frontiers were subsequently established between the new Saudi regime, Iraq and Kuwait. This was the settlement that Britain, after she had shrewdly elicited the assent of the unwitting Arabs, had managed to wrangle from France, which only served to satiate her imperialistic cravings in part.The compact to which the Arabs had pledged themselves, and thereby inadvertently giving Britain a free hand in the Middle East, takes the form of a series of missives that passed between Sir Henry McMahon, the high commissioner of Egypt and Hussein ibn Ali, the Sharif of Mecca, consequently known as the Hussein-McMahon correspondence. Not only are these documents of overriding importance because they are invoked as testimony evincing British betrayal but also because they identify the motives and premises held by the Arabs in apposition to those of the British and reveal the final agreement to which both were compelled to reach - an agreement to postpone agreement. Hussein had believed that in lending assistance to the Allies against the Ottoman Empire he would be able to secure a pan-Arab unified independent state, aspirations which, Arab intellectuals, according to George Antonius, had been harbouring since 1847, and that had continued to grow throughout the ever increasing despotic rule of the Young Turks. A timely offer, for the British were then embroiled in a vicious and internecine battle on the Gallipoli Front. Furthermore, they had been driven to believe that Hussein had the support of secret Arab societies who on proclamation of a Holy war, by the Sharif of Mecca, would disaffect, and form a mighty appendage to the allied forces against the Ottomans .Both premises were wrong. McMahon could not grant Hussein the unconditional independence of the Arab countries; in fact, he was indisposed to grant anything, "McMahon, an experienced bureaucrat had seen the need to be completely noncommittal". It was quite evident to McMahon that concessions would need to be made to Britain's wartime...

Other Essays On Were The Promises And Agreements Made Between The Arabs, French, And British During The First World War Which Led To The Formation Of The Middle East Compatible?

“The First World War: 1914-1920” Chapter 19 - East New York Family Academy, History - Research paper

753 words - 4 pages were few but not all effects of World War I. The use of radio for communications spread to armies, and after the war became the basis of most of what we think of as a way of entertaining ourselves. Radio, television, talking movies and vocal and instrument amplifiers all come from the expansion of this technology during the Great War. During these wars, we have came to use inventions such as Tanks, flame throwers, poison gas, tracer bullets

The Similarities & Differences between the American and French Revolution - World History - essay

598 words - 3 pages Revolution was plotted with the individual that helped the Americans in their very own, Marquis de Lafayette, consequently both revolutions have numerous things in common. Nonetheless they had been many nations, which means they'd cultures that are different and were completely different in every aspect. After the revolution was more than, they have been a republic plus signed the treaty found Paris. When the French go back to France they recognize

Arab uprisings in Egypt and Syria - FIU CPO3404 - Politics of the Middle East - Paper

1076 words - 5 pages Arab Uprisings in Egypt and Syria CPO3404 - Politics of the Middle East The Arab uprisings were a revolutionary wave of protests and demonstrations that occurred because of the disconnect that existed between people and the state throughout the Middle East. When it comes to the Egyptian and Syrian uprisings there are a few differences and also similarities that eventually led to different results. In Egypt, the uprising didn’t fully playout due

The Events That Led Up To The Civil War

783 words - 4 pages The Events Leading Up to the Civil WarConflicts widened between the North and the South as two sides collided in every event before the Civil War. The North and the South were very different in many ways. They were known as two different countries because of their cultural and economic differences. The disagreements between the North and the South aggravated the separation that was soon to follow. When the North gained the control of the

Was The Fear Of The Japanese Aggression In South-East Asia In World War 2 Justified?

1910 words - 8 pages Japanese aggression in South-East Asia sparked the Australian government's change in reliance upon Britain to the USA. Was this fear of the Japanese justified and what changes were brought about during the war years?Japan's grip on South-East Asia was getting stronger throughout 1941. Japanese troops were in Malaya and the Philippines and were getting closer and closer to Australia. The British were unable to provide support to Australia because

What were the chief ideas associated with the ideology of liberalism, nationalism and early utopian socialism During the Nineteenth Century

478 words - 2 pages different ideologies emerged about politics, freedom, and life in general. Many events were started by clashes between supporters of each idea and these clashes forced many people to fight for their beliefs. Three of the main ideas that arose from this time period were liberalism nationalism and socialism.The basic ideas that founded liberalism and socialism are somewhat contradictory. Liberalism is completely focused upon the good of the

An essay about the affects of Cricket on India's development during and after the British Raj - NYU Junior - Essay

1698 words - 7 pages as shown in the rise of cricket. Cricket’s popularity grew as a result of Indian challenging to British superiority. Ironically, cricket was not initially popular, with it only being played within the boundaries of the white settlements. According to historians Shaharyar M. Khan and Ali Khan, during the middle of the 19th century, the Parsis were the first group of Indians to adopt the sport since they “dealt the most with the British, through

To what extent is Joseph Stalin and his ideologies the cause of the Ukrainian Genocide - International Academy East World History 11 - History Essay

2473 words - 10 pages . During the Holodomor, the bartering of tobacco for bread could warrant five years of prison. Within five months of the policy being implemented, 54,645 people had been jailed and 2,110 were executed. Thanks to the severity of punishment of the policy and the wording was based such that people could be punished if it was speculated they did anything. This led to tyrannical control from the Soviet Union. In 1932 when it became clear that Ukraine

The Treatment Of The French This Essay Looks At How The French People Were Treated Throughout Canadian History

1935 words - 8 pages agreement by the British acknowledged for the first time that French civil laws should be restored to the French people and it formally secured property rights of the French people. The French no longer had to be subject to the British civil law, which they found complex and determined not to follow because they felt they should be subject to French civil laws. This was a clear sign that the British were sincere and hopeful that these solutions to the

"Abnormal Psychology" This Is An Essay On The Film 'A Beautiful Mind' Discussing Whether The Ideas And Depictions Of Schizophrenia Were Accurate And Relevant To The Context In Which The Film Was...

881 words - 4 pages to better suit production, which do not necessarily reflect the real life scenario.A Beautiful Mind is set in the time period between 1947-94. The context in which is film is set is of much relevance. In 1959 psychiatrist Kurt Schneider, came out with his First Rank Symptoms, a group of symptoms he proposed would diagnose schizophrenia. This is relevant because it is right during the time in which the film is set. His symptoms included auditory

The Major Cause of the Second World War and the Rise of Nazism - History - Essay

3240 words - 13 pages , together with the seeds of resentment which were only too eagerly exploited by Hitler and the Nazis in the 1920s and early 1930s.” 20 Paragraph 3: Taken territory. Topic Sentence: As a source of humiliation, the British government lay hands on Germany’s territories and all overseas Colonies, detaining and distributing the territories using them to form 16 Dickson, ​World War II for Dummies​, 25. 17 ​Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson, ​The First

Similar Papers

Why Were The Arabs Unable To Defeat Israel In The War Of 1948 9, 1956 And 1967?

458 words - 2 pages had foreign support from Britain and France.In the 1967 war, again, Israeli strengths and Arab weaknesses led to Arab defeat. Israelis effectively planned a surprised attack which took Arab states by surprise. By the first day, Israeli troops had destroyed Arab air forces and had full control over the skies. This shows again, that Israelis had the best-equipped troops in the Middle East and had aid from the US. They had US electronic equipment

The French Revolution And How It Led To The Rise Of Napoleon Bonaparte High School Essay

2031 words - 9 pages Tom Worthington Assess the French Revolution and how it led to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte The French Revolution was a widespread socio-political movement that swept France during the late 18th century that altered not only the future of the Nation but of the entirety of Western Civilisation. The revolution established the concept of citizen sovereignty and rebelled against the archaic notion of monarchism in Europe. It ended the last

Cold War In The Middle East: Afghanistan

1937 words - 8 pages What factors motivated United States and Soviet interest in the Middle East during the Cold War?What impact have they had on contemporary problems in the region?Discuss with reference to at least one example.The Middle East has played host to more foreign 'visitors' than most regions of the world. Over the latter part of the 20th century Afghanistan's private party was crashed by the Soviet's and the United States in a decidedly Cold War fashion

The Tsar And The First World War Year 12 Essay

1195 words - 5 pages . According to Corrin and Fiehn, “During the war the Tsar had the chance to make some concessions to political reform that might have saved him”- meaning the war might not have been his death sentence after all. In light of the role the Tsar’s power played in his own downfall, the view that “what made that kind of revolution possible was the protracted, disruptive, exhausting conflict of the First World War” seems weaker. The people had already begun to