What Enzymnes Are? Essay

2561 words - 11 pages

EnzymesIn this essay, the different types of enzymes existing are going to be discussed and how they are used in industry is also going to be discussed. There are 2000 different enzymes existing in the world. These enzymes are grouped according to the type of reaction they catalyze, (speed up). There are a thousand different reactions taking place in an individual cell and each reaction involves a specific enzyme. There are six major groups, that enzymes categorize into and the categorizations into groups are depended on the type of reaction the enzyme catalyses.The first group is the 'oxidoreductases' group. The type of reaction catalysed in this group is the removal or addition of ...view middle of the document...

Water is involved in this reaction and therefore this reaction can be called hydrolysis: lactaseLactose + water →glucose + galactose sucroseSucrose + water→fructose + glucosemaltaseMaltose + water→ glucose + glucoseMaltose, Sucrose and Lactose are disaccharides, and are broken down into two monosaccharides by the addition of water. The help of the hydrolases catalyses the reaction: lactase, sucrase and lactase. Hydrolases enable many condensation reactions. An example is the polymerization of glucose to glycogen and hydrolytic reactions such as the digestion of proteins to amino acids to take place.Another group that enzymes can catalyze into are the lysases, where the process of the elimination of a group to form a double bond is catalysed:Pyruvic decarboxylasePyruvic acid → ethanal + carbon dioxideIn this process the pyrucic acid is converted into ethanal and carbon dioxide by breakage of its double bond and the addition of a new group to the 'freed' bonds. This particular reaction takes place during the fermentation of sugar by yeast. The ethanal is then converted to ethanol (alcohol). Another example of an enzyme in this group is the citrase lyase.Another group where enzymes can categorise into is the isomerases, where the process of intramolecular rearrangements is catalysed: phosphoglucomutaseGlucose 1-phosphate→ glucose 6-phosphateIn this process the position of the phosphate group in the glucose 1-phosphate molecule is changed to form the isomer glucose 6-phosphate. This process takes place during respiration.Another group where some enzymes categorises into are the ligases, where the process in which there is a formation of a bond, coupled with ATP hydrolysis to ADP and phosphate is catalysed:Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase +ATPAmino acid + specific tRNA → amino acid tRNA complex+ADP + PiIn this process an amino acid is joined to a tRNA molecule. This particular process is called tRNA activation and it is an essential step in protein synthesis. Another example of enzyme in this group is glycogen synthetase.Abyzymes and ribozymes are two groups of biological catalyst, which do not fit into the classification of enzymes. Abyzymes are large antibodies that are made by biotechnologists, who uses the method of monoclonal antibody cloning. These antibodies are large protein molecules, which fit particular substrates very accurately. These enzymes have many uses industrially and medically, such as in breaking down blood clots and removing scar tissues.Ribozymes are sections of nucleotides, which are found in parts of the nuclear RNA during the formation of messenger RNA. These enzymes are expressed as auto splicing catalysts.Natural enzymes made by microorganisms, have been used to make products such as cheese, bread, wine and beer. Nowadays enzymes are used for a wide range of industrial processes.Microbial cells are the most common source of industrial enzymes. Microorganisms could either produce...

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