What Motivates And Sustains Terrorist Movements Politics Essay

1536 words - 7 pages

What motivates and sustains terrorist movements
Word count: 1086
Gus Martin defines terrorism as ‘the unlawful use of, or threatened use, of force or violence against individual or property to coerce and intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives’ (2008, P.8). However, there is a great obstacle in allocating a universal definition of terrorism as the motivations differ so broadly from each movement. Similarly, this assertion is further backed up by Alex Alvarez and Ronet Bachman (2013, p.211) as they agree that terrorism ‘defies simple, easy or absolute definition’ as the motivations of terrorist groups range from ‘political, religious, ethnic, racial or ideological’ (2013, p. 211). In this essay, one shall be evaluating the factors that motivate and sustains terrorist movements as well as critically comparing and contrasting the aim and objectives of differing terrorist groups.
According to Frank Foley (2013, p.20), the motivation behind the violence committed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was the ‘constitutional status of Northern Ireland within the UK’. Nevertheless, this motivation conflicts with that of the protestant unionists in Northern Ireland, who supports remaining part of the United Kingdom. However, Matt Treacy (2011 p.661) reports that the IRA suffered an ideological split in 1969 as modernisers were ‘obsessed with parliamentary politics’. As such, The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) took over from the old IRA, which became known as the Official Irish Republic Army (OIRA). This is further supported by Peter Barberis, John McHugh and Mike Tyldesley (2000, p.836) as they state that OIRA were ‘prioritizing the political over the military struggle and seeking to build a mass working-class socialist party’. Whereas, Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry and Michael Mastanduno (2014, p. 373) note that the PIRA favoured violence as they ‘resorted to terrorist violence to seek independence’. Thus, demonstrating that the PIRA were determined to use violence to fight against the British rule and get them out of the whole of Ireland.
Comparably, links can be drawn between the motivations of the IRA and Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA). As reported by Samuel M. Katz (2004), ETA was established in 1959 by student activist whose motivation, according to Kathleen Sweet (2008), was Basque separatism. In this sense, H. James Birx (2010, p.1012) argues that the motivations of ETA and the IRA are inherently linked as ‘the IRA was committed to end British rule in Northern Ireland […] ETA sought independence for the Basque region’. Thereby, their motivation of separatism from centralised power links the dissident terrorist groups together.
A further way in which both groups are linked is by the introduction of revolutionary tax. As defined by John Perdikaris (2014, p. 119), ‘revolutionary taxes are typically extorted from small to medium sized businesses’. As such, William Chapman (1988, p....

Other Essays On What motivates and sustains terrorist movements - Politics - Essay

To what extent has the Westminster Parliament been marginalised by an overly powerful executive? - Politics - Essay

2114 words - 9 pages To what extent has the Westminster Parliament been marginalised by an overly powerful executive?   Kate Doyle – 7637213 Who Runs Britain? Power, Politics and Beyond - 1718 POL1100M-1718  Word count:1901 The legislative branch of the Westminister parliament consists of two chambers, The House of Commons and The House of Lords, the executive branch being The Government (the Prime Minister and the Cabinet). The extent to which the Westminister

USA Patriot Act and whether or not its been a success - Politics - Essay

411 words - 2 pages USA Patriot Act In response to the terrorist acts on September 11 and detrimental effects to the United States of America, President George W. Bush signed the USA Patriot Act into law. This act is formally known as the Uniting and Strengthening America Act by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. Terrorism can be in any form and is defined as the unlawful use of violence and intimidation

Globalisation and its effects: problems with definition - Murdoch University, politics - Essay

2664 words - 11 pages POL161 Assignment 2: 2000 Word Essay Matt Benson-Parry 33553321 POL161 Assignment 2: 2000 Word Essay Matt Benson-Parry 33553321 While some critics have argued that globalisation and its effects are easy to define and quantify, others have claimed that globalisation comprises disparate and complex forces that are difficult to define and assess. Which side do you agree with and why? Globalisation​ is central to contemporary world politics and

How the Beauty Industry Failed Women of Color - Binghamton University, Media and Politics - Essay

4211 words - 17 pages Christina Mille Professor Joseph Leeson- Schatz Media and Politics ENG 450V Spring 2018 How the Beauty Industry Failed Women of Color In the same way that the fashion industry continuously sets the standard of fashion in society, the cosmetics industry has defined beauty since the industry’s rise to success and popularity. Led by big name companies such as MAC and L’Oreal, the cosmetics industry is a breeding ground for all things beauty and

power and politics, it speaks of the different forms of power in the political system - varsity - Essay

1636 words - 7 pages means mindful of. Steven Lukes, characterizes Power as far as, what he calls 'Dimensions', these Dimensions are approaches that can be utilized to think about power relations and the theory of power as a whole. Steven Lukes argued that in order to properly understand the theory of power one must recognize the three dimensions of power, this essay will critically discuss this argument. The concept of power is ambiguous, and to this day it continues

What is qualitative and quantitative research approaches? - Denver - Essay

3096 words - 13 pages projects. For example, Bryman (1988) argued for a `best of both worlds' approach and suggested that qualitative and quantitative approaches should be combined. Hughes (1997), nevertheless, warns that such technicist solutions underestimate the politics of legitimacy that are associated with choice of methods. In particular, quantitative approaches have been seen as more scientific and `objective'. In exploring issues of qualitative and

What constitutes non-combatant immunity - War and morality - Essay

1391 words - 6 pages debates due to a lack of agreement on what constitutes its underlying basis. In this essay, I will compare theories by Nagel and Walzer of what purports non-combatant immunity. I will start by defining the principle and explaining each philosopher’s theory for its basis. Some noble points to compare include the base assumptions, restrictions and how the consequence of the restrictions ground the principle of non-combatant immunity. Non-combatant

Essay About Jacksonians Presidency And What A Jacksonian Democracy Is (Timed Essay)

409 words - 2 pages -distributed the power from the rich and balanced it out with the poor. Also, voting caucuses were being replaced by nomination conventions. Thus further destroying the unequal distribution of political power.Despite all of these movements toward universal male suffrage, was still only toward white males. Indians as well as blacks still found themselves in the same situation as they had been before. In fact, the Indians were slowly being pushed out of

White Collar Crime essay explaining what and how it happen - Criminal Justice - Essay

1752 words - 8 pages RUNNING HEAD: WHITE COLLAR CRIME 1 8 WHITE COLLAR CRIME White Collar Crime Cassandra Victor Ricky Langlois CCJ 4644 White Collar Crime According to Payne (2016), “White-collar crime” is an offense that is perpetrated by somebody of good decorum and high societal rank in the course of his or her line of specialization. This paper will delineate and deliberate what “white collar crime” is. Next it will respond to the query that asks who the

This essay is about motivation and what it takes to achieve a goal - Mdcc - Essay

475 words - 2 pages Hays Holder ENG 113-30 T. Craddock Essay 1 “If there is no struggle, there is no progress” this inspirational quote by Frederick Douglass has continued to inspire individuals for years. People will naturally tend to doubt their capabilities and give up on their goals; rather than to carry on attempting to achieve them. Continuing to pursue goals, no matter the struggle, cannot be achieved until you conquer the struggle. A goal that is attainable

Identity, What is the identity how and whats creating it - Sociology - Essay

1007 words - 5 pages unique or different. This is called personal identity. Social roles in everyday life such as work, religious rituals, belongings and groups we are in create a sense of what is called Social Identity. People change over the time and their roles as well and social positions. In this case we could also think that personalities are something that changes as well. People might argue by saying that they are always the same and the only thing is

Similar Papers

‘The Human Will To Survive Is What Motivates Connor, Risa And Lev.’ Discuss English Essay

483 words - 2 pages ‘The human will to survive is what motivates Connor, Risa and Lev.’ Discuss Neil Shusterman’s novel Unwind captivates the readers in a very strange way. Unwind follows three teens on their intriguing journey of being unwinds. A journey which is physically, mentally and socially demanding for all unwinds. The will to survive with the help of each other is going to help them progress. A huge amount of courage and bravery is shown. The biggest

Black Women In Political Movements Politics Iii Essay

1956 words - 8 pages Sinenhlanhla Ngxukumeshe 1354367 POLS2021 Research Paper Introduction This essay will focus on analysing the relationship between white liberalism and Black Consciousness by questioning the consequences and impact of Black Consciousness challenging white supremacist attitudes in the liberation movement. This will be done by investigating the philosophy of Black Consciousness and the inferences made about the attitudes, intentions and actions of

What Is Politics In Defence Of Politics By Bernard Crick? University First Year Essay

1013 words - 5 pages POL105 – What is Politics? In Defence of Politics by Bernard Crick, What is Politics: The Activity and its Study by Adrian Leftwich and Structures of Power by J.J. Schwarzmantel explore the definition and relevance of politics in their respective texts. All three authors explain the meaning of politics and its relation or importance to political tools such as power, state and resources. Although, their definitions of the subject differ in many

Global Politics Unit 3 And 4 Essay Vce Vce Global Politics Essay

1149 words - 5 pages global politics. However in a complex globalized world with a range of global actors; social, economic and cultural issues can challenge the sovereignty of all states. The Responsibility to Protect doctrine emerged to address growing global challenges to universal human rights and arms control ,stating that humanitarian intervention is both necessary at times and a responsibility of the international community. Libya was the first case where the