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World History Essay

2214 words - 9 pages

Ch 21: The Collapse and Recovery of EuropeMargin and Big Picture ResponsesMargin Review Questions1. What aspects of Europe's nineteenth-century history contributed to the First World War?• Aspects of Europe's nineteenth-century history that contributed to the First World War include the emergence of Germany and Italy as unified states, which disrupted the fragile balance of power between Europe's major countries that had been established after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815;• Growing popular nationalism in Europe; industrialization and industrialized militarism; and competition among European powers for colonial empires also played a significant role.2. In what ways did World War I ...view middle of the document...

• Millions of colonial subjects who had participated in the war had gained new military skills and political awareness and returned home with less respect for their rulers and with expectations for better treatment as a reward for their service.• In East Asia, Japan had emerged strengthened from the war, with European support for its claim to take over German territory and privileges in China.• Japan's increased influence in China enraged Chinese nationalists and among a few sparked an interest in Soviet-style communism, for only the new Communist rulers of Russia seemed willing to end the imperialist penetration of China.• World War I brought the United States to center stage as a global power.3. In what ways was the Great Depression a global phenomenon?• Industrial production from Europe and especially the United States required foreign markets, and when those markets dried up, industrial production collapsed.• Countries or colonies tied to exporting one or two commodities to industrial countries were especially hard-hit as the market for their exports dried up.4. In what ways did fascism challenge the ideas and practices of European liberalism and democracy?• Where fascism arose, it sought to revitalize and purify the nation and to mobilize people for a grand task. Fascists condoned violence against enemies, exalted action rather than thought and reflection, and looked to a charismatic leader for direction. They condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, and parliamentary democracy, all of which, they argued, divided and weakened the nation.5. What was distinctive about the German expression of fascism? What was the basis of popular support for the Nazis?• German-style fascism was distinct because the Nazis were able to assume police powers more thoroughly than their Italian counterparts were able to achieve, which limited opposition.• Far more so than in Italy, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis used Jews as a symbol of the urban, capitalist, and foreign influences that were supposedly corrupting "true" German culture.• Emphasis on a racial revolution was a central feature of the Nazi program and differed from the racial attitudes in Italy.• In terms of popular support for Nazism, war veterans who had felt betrayed by German politicians after World War I formed an important base of support.• The Nazis also gradually drew support from the middle classes as well as from conservative landowners because of the ruinous inflation of 1923 and then the Great Depression.• By the late 1930s, the Nazis apparently had the support of a considerable majority of the population, in large measure because their policies successfully brought Germany out of the Depression.6. How did Japan's experience during the 1920s and 1930s resemble that of Germany, and how did it differ?• Their experiences were similar in that both countries were newcomers to great-power status; had limited experience with...

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