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DNADeoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances involved in transmitting geneticinformation from parent to offspring. It was known early into the 20th century that chromosomes, the geneticmaterial of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCartyconcluded that DNA was the basic genetic component of chromosomes. Later, RNA would be proven toregulate protein synthesis. (Miller, 139)DNA is the genetic material found in most viruses and in all cellular organisms. Some viruses do not haveDNA, but contain RNA instead. Depending on the organism, most DNA is found within a single chromosomelike bacteria, or in several chromosomes like
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PAGE PAGE 1 The Structure of DNA
The Structure of DNADNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almostall other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person's body has the same DNA. Most DNAis located in the cell nucleus (it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNAcan also be found in the mitochondria (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2009). ADNA molecule consists of two chains of nucleotides (polymers of nucleic acid eachcomposed of a phosphate, a five carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base) that spiral to formthe double helix shape. The nucleotides that forms the DNA structure are organized sotheir sugar-phosphate components face the outside and form
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DNA is usually a double-helix and has two strands running in opposite directions. Each chain is made of subunits called nucleotides.Each strand has a backbone made up of deoxy-ribose sugar molecules (5 sugars) linked together by phosphate groups.Each sugar molecule is covalently linked to one of four possible bases, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine. A and G are larger molecules (called purines) and C and T are smaller molecules (called pyrimidines). In the DNA, the two strands run in opposite directions and the bases pair up so that A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C. The A-T pair has 2 hydrogen bonds and the G-C pair has 3 hydrogen bonds. The G-C interaction is therefore
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May 17, 2019
SWBAT – extract DNA from their own bodies
EQ- How can we extract DNA without destroying the DNA itself?
Do now- In groups, students will remember the structure of a cell and list the structures that are between the outside and the DNA of a cell.
(Image of strings and clumps of DNA)
That's your DNA!
What can I do to increase my yield of DNA?
At an extraction of DNA from a silica-dried plant leaves (50-60 mg), using a buffer consists of CTAB 2%, boric acid, Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Urea, and PVP, I got a small size pellet with low yield of DNA. I add 1 % Mercaptoethanol to the buffer at the time of the extraction and precipitate organic and non-organic substances with
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If, in the course of their investigation of crime, the police obtain an individual’s DNA profile why, if at all,
does the retention by the state of that profile constitute an interference with the individual’s privacy, and on
what basis should it be retained on a national database of such profiles?
The UK National DNA Database (NDNAD) has been implemented in 1995 and is today the oldest and today one of
the most important DNA database in the world which continue to growth. In September 2017, the national database
contained more than six millions of DNA profiles. The aim of this database is to enable police to identify unknown 1
and known suspects through their DNA samples which have been
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
· single nucleotide where the base differs. The base where the nucleotide differs.
· Some measureable amount of the population that have the specific ‘mutation’
· Mutation is just variation
· Purines are very common to convert into another purine
· White Anglo-Saxon protestants. Slang term for a social class of white Americans of British protestant ancestry.
SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS:
· The utilitarian procedure for discerning the morally right course of action is theoretically simple: determine which action _____. MAXIMIZES WELL-BEING
· Deoxyribose differs from Ribose in that… IS ONE OF THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF DNA
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BIOCHEMISTRY In the scientific journal article "DNA Aptamers Selected against the HIV-1 RNase H Display in Antiviral Activity" from the Biochemistry journal the researchers were talking about an inhibitor of the ribonuclease H activity on RNA-DNA hybrids. Since they know that a vaccination against HIV-1 is still a long-term goal. They want to make an inhibitor that will be more affective at blocking the viral replication and thus slow the onset and progression of the HIV-1 virus. The article states that new inhibitors have been found using the SELEX method that means systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. In the article the scientists used SELEX to isolate
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Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering involves the alteration of an organism's hereditary material in order to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce plants with more desirable characteristics. The splicing of genes takes place in order to combine traits that would be unlikely to occur together under ordinary circumstances. "Practices that go back centuries, such as the use of microbes to make wine, cheese, and the selective breeding of livestock and crops, are examples of biotechnology". (Campbell, 1999) These, and other procedures have relied on mutation and genetic recombination. Biotechnology that is based on manipulation of DNA, is different from earlier practices
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The Genetics of Sickle Cell Anemia
I. What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein or a trait. Genes can
be any length and sometimes involve multiple sections of DNA. The HBB
gene provides instructions for making a protein called Beta-globin which is
part of a large protein called hemoglobin that is found in red blood cells.
Each hemoglobin protein can carry four molecules of oxygen, which is
delivered to the body's organs and tissues. If a person doesn't have enough
red blood cells or the cells don't work properly, organs can become deprived
of oxygen. This condition is called
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thoughts of Watson and Crick depended vigorously on crafted by different researchers.
Numerous individuals trust that American researcher James Watson and English physicist Francis Crick found DNA in the 1950s. As a general rule, this isn't the situation. Or maybe, DNA was first recognized in the late 1860s by Swiss scientist Friedrich (Miescher, 2008). At that point, in the decades following Miescher's revelation, different researchers - exceedingly, Phoebus Levene and Erwin Chargaff- - completed a progression of research attempts that uncovered extra insights about the DNA molecule, including its essential substance parts and the manners by which they joined with each other (Levene, 1919
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December 27, 2017
Letter to a friend
I’ve done an experiment that was very interesting and fun in biotech class. What i did in this
experiment was extract my very own DNA in order to make a DNA Necklace. DNA is a
Deoxyribonucleic Acid and what it does is store genetic information. The structure of DNA is
molecules that are organized into a ladder called the Double helix. Each molecule is made up of
millions subunits called Nucleotides.
The Phosphate and sugar molecules form the spine of the DNA molecule. There are three bases
that form the rungs which are made up of nitrogen. There are four Nitrogen bases which are
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model was developed into the induced fit model. This suggests that the active site is flexible and it forms as the enzyme and substrate interact. The specificity due to the structure ensures that metabolic pathways are maintained. Enzymes control all metabolic reactions in the body such as respiration and photosynthesis where rubisco fixes carbon to RuBP in the light-independent reaction. It is highly important that these structures remain intact because otherwise these reactions cannot occur properly. Denaturation can be caused by changes in pH and temperature.
Hydrogen bonds are also important in genetics as hydrogen bonds form between organic nitrogen containing bases. In DNA, three hydrogen
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Biology Vocabulary Sheet
Adenine: a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine
derivative, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA.
Anaphase: the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move
away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle and the fourth stage in Mitosis.
Benign: a benign tumor is a tumor that does not invade its surrounding tissue or spread
around the body.
Cancer Screening: cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
This may involve blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or medical imaging.
Cell: the cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of
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possible for us to use the cells from an adult organism to create another genetically identical organism. Suddenly it seems like science fiction story of cloning humans has become not-so-distant possibility.Biotechnology is the application to industry of advances made in the techniques and instruments of research in the biological sciences. The practical use of DNA and genes, called genetic technology or gene science is one of the fastest growing areas of research in biotechnology. The growth of the field of biotechnology is, undoubtedly, dependent on the development of genetic engineering. Scientists have been able to make use of the fact that DNA is the same and works in the same way, in
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4. Do you think Watson may have had a valid point when he told Rosalind that a “fresh look” at her work may be what was needed? Explain.
5. What important relationship between DNA nucleotides did Watson and Crick discover? What methods did they use to accomplish this
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Transcription factors are protins that bind specific sites or elements in regulatory regoions of DNA, known as promoters or enhancers, where they control the transcription or expression of target genes. They are encoded by a unique calss of genes amounting in the animal genome to only a few percent of the total number of protein- coding genes. The recognition of DNA sequence by TFs occurs by chemical interactions of the amino acid side chains of the TF protein with base pair residues of DNA functioning as regulatory sequence. The TFs thus read the genomic sequence and the most fundamental fact about this mechanism is that it is the sequence recognition function ion which informational
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Bioengineering, or genetic engineering is an altering ofgenes in a particular species for a particular outcome.It involves taking genes from their normal location in oneorganism and either transferring them elsewhere or puttingthem back into the original organism in different combinations.Most biomolecules exist in low concentrations and as complex, mixedpopulations which it is not possible to work efficiently. This problemwas solved in 1970 using a bug, Escherichia coli, a normally innocuouscommensal occupant of the human gut. By inserting a piece of DNA of interestinto a vector molecule, a molecule with a bacterial origin of replication, whenthe whole recombinant construction is
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decline in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Based on the case-control and cohort studies show that the presence of HBsAg in serum causes the chronic HBV infection and elevated for HCC development. This kind of problem cause the hepatitis B patients have no hepatitis B surface antigen that detected in serum. After the disappearance of HBsAg and appearance of anti-HBs, the level of HBV DNA in serum and fragments of HBV DNA in occult HBV infections is low. HBV on the other hand also implicated in HCC patients that do not have the evidence of infection with HBV. Patrick et. al reported that HBsAg in some patients is absent but the antibody of HBV core antigen as IgM anti HBc are detected.
By using the
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A genetically modified organism is "an organism whose genetic structure has been changed by incorporating a gene that will convey a wanted trait, many times called gene splicing" (1). The transferred gene allocates the organism to express a trait that will usually add to its desirability to the producer. To modify the organism, scientists usually use recombinant DNA technology, which uses DNA molecules from different sources are combined in vitro into one molecule to create a new gene, and then this DNA is transferred into an organism and causes the expression of the trait or traits. Genetically modified foods are very prevalent in today's society, ranging from simple genetically modified
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Genetic engineering is also called genetic modification or GM. It involves modifying the genome of an organism by introducing a gene from another organism to result in a desired characteristic.
How has genetic engineering worked until now, and what are the limitations?
Generally it uses what’s known as a bacterial vector. In simple terms, you take the stretch of DNA you want to insert into an organism – say, for example, the DNA that makes a carrot produce vitamin A. You insert it into a bacterium, usually agrobacterium tumefaciens, and you introduce that bacterium into the organism you want to modify, say a rice plant. The bacterium acts as a delivery mechanism, inserting that stretch of
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or units: a domain or unit that activates transcription factors, a domain that recognizes particular DNA sequences, a domain that is responsible for protein tetramerization, and a domain that recognizes damaged DNA including single-stranded DNA or misaligned base pairs. The impairment of p53 gene is associated with reduced tumor suppression. Individuals who inherit just one functional p53 copy are at higher risks of developing tumors in early adulthood, a condition termed as Li-Fraumeni syndrome (Muller & Karen 17). Mutagens ( viruses, radiations, or chemicals) can also damage p53 increasing the chances that the cell will start the uncontrolled division. Over half of human tumors contain a
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combination of DNA and protein found with chromosmes of eukaryotic nucleus
darkened region inside nucleus, site of rRNA and ribosomal protein synthesis
site of protein synthesis, no membrane, not an organelle. free or bound. free proteins = cytosol
just outside nucleus, involved in lipid synthesis, membrane formation and detoxification
contains bound ribosomes, synthesis of membrane bound and secretory proteins
"post office" receives , repackages and modifies outgoing material from ER and incoming material from cell membrane
Name _____________________________ AP Biology
3 of 4
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Chromosomes and genes
Chromosomes are genetic structures found in the nucleus of the cell. Humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell arranged in 23 pairs. Chromosomes are made up of smaller sections called genes, genes are made of short lengths of DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid). Genes act like codes to control characteristics such as eye colour and hair colour.
A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA. Each genome contains all the information needed to build and maintain that organism.
DNA has a structure known as the double helix. It is made of four bases and they always make the same pairs.
A and T
G and C
This is known as base pairing.
DNA is made up of three sub
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estimated 150 people have been exonerated since 1973 with evidence of their innocence and the help of DNA testing. DNA testing plays a very important role in proving innocence, however many inmates struggle to get this completed due to jurisdictions officials refusing to have evidence tested using DNA testing methods, “arguing that this would reopen too many old cases.” DNA Testing and The Death Penalty.” Another factor that contributes to wrongful convictions is eyewitness misidentification. It has been found in capital cases that eyewitness’s testimonies are often found inaccurate and disproven by DNA testing. The eyewitness’s memory can be impacted in a variety of ways; memories can be
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it comes to genome editing there is no moral permissibility whatsoever and that there are only moral obligations and impermissibility.
To say that something is morally permissible is to say that something is permitted and that there aren’t any consequences for what is being done and that in general it is morally insignificant. Yet when it comes to gene editing it is quite the opposite as it means scientists would be changing the DNA of a person, the unique and specific chemical structure that makes a person that person. DNA is also then passed on to children which would mean that a person’s altered DNA could then be passed on for the generations to come. It should be clear now that gene
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, but is unable to become an astronaut as she has "Unacceptable risk of heart failure." It is ironic that she, a genetically modified valid, suffers a similar fate to Vincent, whose natural birth gives him a heightened chance of heart failure. This further reiterates that valids struggle with similar issues as the invalids, even though they are supposedly guaranteed "success."
In the film, I implemented the use of symbols. The images that appear when a person’s DNA is tested is either a cross or an infinity symbol. The cross is used to represent the invalids, while the infinity symbol represents the valids. The cross is used to echo the biblical connotations of the crucifix, as the invalids
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reunited again. Modern technology lets broken family reunite by matching their DNAs. Nowadays, there are 143 million children who are orphans. Some of these children became orphans because their parents were dead, some of these children were abandoned and others are separated with their parents because they unfortunately involved in the child trafficking. The breakthrough in biological technology like DNA testing, which is the test that identify and match the DNA of two people to find out whether they have blood relation or not, will help these children in finding their birth parents bring their family together.
So, Madam Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, we the affirmative team are reaffirming now that we believe modern technology brings families together because smartphones improve your safety and DNA testing technologies bring family together by helping them reunion again and form a completed and happy family. Thank you.
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research under way to try to find a cure for CF lung disease through gene therapy. Gene therapy is essentially the removing and replacing of a particular gene or set of genes that are dysfunctional with normal functioning genes in an effort to cure a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is performed by using a vector to insert tiny fragments of replacement DNA into a diseased cell's nucleus. A vector is simply a shuttle that is used to carry DNA into a cell and then leave it there for the cell to use. Generally, the vectors used in gene therapy are viruses because a virus can hold onto the DNA as it enters cells, and then deliver the DNA to the cell. The vector is injected into the defective target
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from abuses of power by police, judges, and other government officials?
a. How are citizens protected from these abuses by the Bill of Rights?
3. According to the Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth amendments, what rights are guaranteed to people suspected of having committed a crime
4. In what sense do the Ninth and Tenth amendments protect the right of citizens?
Law and the Real World page 169
The Death Penalty. The U.S. Constitution, and DNA
Applying the Law
1. What are the arguments for and against the death penalty?
2. Does the use of DNA testing support or weaken the arguments against the death penalty? Explain.
Chapter 6 Section 3
Interpreting the Bill of Rights
Read Chapter 6.3 and answer the
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intellectual groups: one that stresses multiregional continuity and the other that suggests a single
origin for modern humans.
Scientist began to study the DNA record of human and animal genes. Because DNA is
inherited, differences and similarities in the proteins and DNA of animals(including humans)
living today suggest the date up to which they might have shared common ancestors before
separating into different streams of evolution. Extending the method further, researchers have
analyzed the mitochondrial DNA of thousands of women living today, and conclude that Homo
sapiens sapiens emerged solely from Africa around 120,000 years ago and that all of us today are
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21 March 2018
Murder- Wealth V. Love
On september 16,2012, the body of Julia Harris was found in her home in Wilroads Gardens. At first, police suspected her death was due to natural causes but, after finding cyanide in Mrs.Harris’s bloodstream, they are now suspecting foul play. As of now, there are two suspects Mary Wolston, household maid and friend of Mrs. Harris, and Dr. Harold Wong, Mrs. Harris’s ex-lover and doctor. Mrs.Harris was killed by Mary Wolston which is evidenced by the finding of her hair and fingerprints on Mrs. Harris’s body and that the room was untouched.
Ms. Wolston is guilty because there were pieces of dna that belonged to her on
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In Canada, David Milgaard was sentenced to life imprisonment for the 1969 murder of Gail Miller, a Saskatoon nursing aide. David spent 22 years in prison, The Supreme Court set aside Milgaard's conviction in 1992, and he was cleared by DNA evidence in 1997. The Saskatchewan government awarded Milgaard $10 million to try and compensate for 22 years of his life gone to waste. If David was in the United States, he would be condemned to capital punishment. He would have been wrongfully murdered and no amount money could compensate for his death. This case could have caused even more problems if capital punishment was reinstated. After the abolition of capital punishment murder rates in Canada
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was questioned and still is to this day. (Eisner 2.) Gene therapy seems to be just the beginning at finding cures to deadly illnesses such as cancer, epilepsy, and hemophilia. It has proven itself to be successful when tested in labs on animals. Some of society, however, feels that experimenting with DNA and replicating of genes is unethical. Those who believe so, argue that the genetic material has the possibility of making patients sick. They also argue that by altering ones DNA in any way is harmful. Finally they state that the viruses used to deliver these new and healthy genes has the ability to replicate themselves, leading to chronic infection or even cancer. Those against gene
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neanderthalensis genome, while native
African populations do not. This suggests that there must have been instances of interbreeding
between hominid populations, or at least between Neanderthals and modern humans, about
1% - 4%. (2)
Some believe that the Regional Continuity model and the Replacement model are
conflicting. However, neither party can completely discount the biological and archeological
evidence for an African origin. If the Replacement theory is modified to account for some
interbreeding between hominids, a partial replacement theory concluded that there were
small amount of interbreeding, since non-native African populations share 1%-4% of their DNA,
whereas native African populations
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chemical mechanism behind this process is far more complex as it involves a Transcription Translation Oscillating Loop. The process of transcription occurs throughout the body, creating a copy of the DNA sequence to form an RNA molecule with the opposite nucleotide bases to form essentially a mirror image. As Adenine and Guanine pair together and Thymine and Cytosine together, if there is an A base on the DNA, a G one will be present on the RNA molecule and this pattern is consistent with the other bases with the exception of RNA containing Uracil bases instead of Thymine. This process occurs as RNA, unlike DNA, can exit the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where the sequence is read and translated
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maintain other bodily functions. Because your body loses water through breathing, sweating, and digestion, it's important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water.
Carbohydrates have different roles one of them are the are a source of energy for the body, they build blocks of polysaccharides and also they are components of other molecules such as DNA,RNA, glycolipids,glycoproteins,ATP.
Carbohydrates is a molecular compound which is made up from just three elements
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functions may not work well.
Isomerase enzymes cause changes in a molecule, this makes a change in shape because
there is only one substrate and one product with nothing lost or gained. Within this category,
there are a few sub-categories depending upon their effect. There are geometric, structural,
enantiomer, and stereoisomer isomerases. Once again, life would struggle if it weren’t for this
kind of enzyme.
Ligation is caused by ligase enzymes. Ligation happens when two substrates are joined
together. Chemical potential energy is typically required for this reaction to occur, so it is usually
paired with the hydrolysis of a diphosphate bond. DNA ligase – which catalyzes the ligation or
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use the organs for research at times and they want to make sure the organs are perfect or at least good for research.
3. What clues left behind in the body tell the story of how a person died ?
· Clues that are left behind on a body that tell the story of how a person died are things such as hair fragments, gun residue,clothing fragments, unusual marks, clothing , outside body appearance like if there is blunt force trauma to the head can give you a hint of the story behind the person’s death. For example, if you find gun residue then you know that a gun was involved. Or if someone got murdered and their is DNA on their skin or fingernails, you can solve the murder by gathering the DNA from the skin and fingernails. These clues help the medical examiner and forensic scientist and detectives solve the story if there is one behind it. The evidence if probably stored can help solve murders and help loved ones get closuure.
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sustainability of local communities worldwide. The company mainly focused on. Economic empowerment and entrepreneurship of women Access to clean water, water conservation and recycling
Education, youth development and other community and civic initiatives
In conclusion, we can see that Coca-Cola company has followed increased CSR and all the programs are successful. These programs definitely are long-term and include many aspects, surely not limited by those described by me. Its strategy includes environment care, dialogue with all stakeholders and is in line with both its history and activities.
Coca-Cola. (n.d.). ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: it’s in our DNA’. Retrieved from
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because on July 25th, Ekaterinburg fell to the advancing white army. After an investigation, Sokolov found the first pit mine but the actual burial site at Koptaiki wasn?t discovered until 1979 by a Russian mystery writer.Because there were only reports of the Tsar?s death, there were speculations that some of the family members survived. Also when the bodies were DNA tested, 2 of them could not be accounted for. The most notable imposter was Anna Anderson claiming to be Anastasia. She looked like her, but DNA tests proved that she wasn?t. In Canada, a man named ?Heino? died of a blood disorder and on his tombstone it said ?Alexei Nikolaievich, Sovereign Heir of Russia.? It was at first
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A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called a
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight into
A) the energy of motion
B) carbon dioxide and water
C) the potential energy of chemical bonds
E) kinetic energy
The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is
A) light energy
B) kinetic energy
C) thermal energy
D) chemical energy
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do
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. Due to the simplicity, precision, and high-speed compared to other technologies, several scientists fear it is just a matter of time before someone uses the technology for further unrestricted modifications of the human genome. Although some scientists believe in banishing human disease with technology, others believe it is unethical.
The first time scientists edited DNA in human embryos was in May of 2015. In this attempt, Chinese researchers edited the gene that causes a blood disorder, beta thalassemia. This reduces the production of hemoglobin that can then lead to a lack of oxygen in many parts of the body. At the time this research was considered “off limits” and called “unsafe and
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CRISPR stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Panildromic Repeats is a Cas system in prokaryotes which is guided by a RNA and it aids in dematerializing foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR is a new technology where a Cas-9 is used which can modify the genes of the organisms. CRISPR has the ability to rearrange the genetic sequence of the DNA of living organisms (Michael Specter, Nat Geo). Even though CRISPR is capable of editing genetic sequence but according to research on different organisms it is also responsible for different genetic mutations which may cause muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and many genetic disorders (Michael
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· Maryland v. King (Taking an arrestee’s DNA) (2013)
In a 5-4 ruling, the U.S. Supreme Court found police do not violate the Fourth Amendment by taking DNA samples from all people arrested in connection with serious crimes and depositing them in a national DNA database. "Taking and analyzing a cheek swab of the arrestee DNA is, like fingerprinting and photographing, a legitimate police booking procedure that is reasonable under the Fourth Amendment," Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote for the court's five-justice majority. The ruling backed a Maryland law allowing DNA swabbing of people arrested for serious crimes.
Going to the Dogs
Although not strictly “body” cases, the U.S. Supreme Court has decided
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. Inaddition, the factor VIII and IX blood levels are known tofluctuate in people and will increase with stress and pregnancy. Asa result, only a prediction of the carrier status can be given withthis method.Another method to determine the carrier status in a woman isto look directly at the DNA from a small blood sample of severalmembers of the family including the haemophiliacs. In Canada,modern operations include Chorionic Villous Sampling (CVS) and ithelps analyze the DNA for markers of haemophilia at 9-11 weeks ofpregnancy. (Fig. 1)9 A small probe is inserted through the neck ofthe mother womb or through the abdomen under local anaesthetics. Atiny sample from the placenta is removed and
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Evidence for Evolution Worksheet Name:__________________________Date:_________Per:____
For each question below, explain whether the evidence is comparative anatomy (homologous structures),comparative
anatomy (analogous structures), DNA analysis, or from the fossil record. Then, using complete sentences, explain why it
is evidence of evolution, or that life changes over time.
1. Humans, chimpanzees, whales, and bats all have the same bones in their arms, fins, or wings.
a. What type of evidence is this? ______comparative anatomy (homologous structures)__
b. Why is this evidence of evolution?
This is evidence of evolution because if all these animals have the same bones, they
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human immunodeficiency virus, orHIV. AIDS causes the immune system of the infected patient to become much lessefficient until it stops working altogether.The first drug that was approved by the American Food and Drugadministration for use in treating the AIDS virus is called AZT, which stands forazido-thymidine. AZT was released under the brand name of Retrovir and it's chemicalname is Zidovudine, or ZDV. The structural name of AZT is 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. AZT works by inhibiting the process of copying DNA in cells. Morespecifically, AZT, inhibits the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is involved in theDNA replication process. When DNA is replicating in a cell, there is a specific
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popular such as Asia. As a result, some people of European descent and many people of Asian descent are lactose intolerant. Human adults began to digest milk because short patches of DNA outside the lactase gene started regulating its activity. About 7000 years ago, people started domesticating cattle, sheep, goats and camels for the purpose of dairy farming in Europe. Before that the ancient Europeans relied on energy from food obtained by hunting, fishing and gathering. Lactose tolerance is increasing substantially in the British population. By being able to obtain energy from lactose which makes up 30% of the calories found in milk, women who are lactase-persistent are able to use this energy
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features found in fossils as well as genetic factors based on limited DNA studies. However, scripture tells us that there is only one human race. In order for evolutionists to be right about an ape common ancestor, "40 million separate mutation events would have had to take place and become fixed in the population in our 300,000 generations" (DeWitt, 2007, p. 232). It is a near mathematical impossibility. This is referred to as Haldane's dilemma. Studies based on limited DNA genome from chimpanzees have results in a 96-98% match with the modern human genome, but more recent studies have lowered this number. Humans have 23 chromosomes where chimpanzees have 24. Additionally, the human telomeres
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· Explain the law on this issues and then apply in relation to above scenario relating to living arrangements, circumcision issue and contact (human rights)
4. Legitimacy (Courts approach to uncertainty over paternity)
· Introduce and show how the law in this area has evolved (presumption and rebuttals)
· Current law on legitimacy; DNA testing
· Human rights and Childs right to know
· Consider all eventualities in the event that he is or is not the father.
· Find journal articles in this area and discuss courts approach on this issue
· Explain and apply on above scenario
Advise Natasha and Lucas
5. 6. And 7. Surrogacy (Legal parents, parental responsibility, parental orders, chances of success