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Cognitive development is an intellectual growth from infancy to adulthood. Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss psychologist, was one of the most important and influential researchers in the field of developmental psychology throughout the 20th century. Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896. His father, Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature with an interest in local history. His mother, Rebecca Jackson, was intelligent and energetic. The oldest child, he was very independent and took an early interest in nature. He published his first paper when he was ten - a one page account of his sighting of an albino sparrow.Piaget was the first to develop
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Running head: A DELVE INTO THE MAN BEHIND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1
A Delve into the Man Behind Cognitive Development
A Biography of the Great Jean Piaget
Cirillo — D.C. PSYC-2301
April 26th, 2019
A DELVE INTO THE MAN BEHIND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 2
This paper biographies Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist who was renowned for his immense
alms to the field of psychology, especially when concerning his emphasis on the adequate
growth and proper education of children. He was most well known for his theory of cognitive
development which has long since been utilized in many a classroom and educational program to
ensure and foster constructive and fruitful youths who would be
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multidisciplinary speaks to the acknowledgment that it takes in excess of a clinician to assess somebody's improvement. Advancement happens organically, intellectually, and socially, and consequently ought to be assessed likewise with a few experts from their separate field. Plastic is an understanding that people can be formed similarly as plastic. Our qualities can be modified, while we as people remain consistent with ourselves. ( Berger, 2016, p. 9-23)
There are many theories related to human growth and development. However, I will only focus on three of them. They include the theory of cognitive development, psychosexual development, and psychosocial stages of development. Jean Piaget
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Cognitive approach Behaviourist
Social learning theory
Stage theories within
contributed to our
understanding of child
example, as part of
concepts (schema) as
they get older.
Does not offer a
coherent stage for
instead see the
underpin learning as
at any stage.
Does not offer a
coherent stage for
instead see the
underpin learning as
at any stage.
Nature vs nurture Recognises that many
of our information
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) studied age and IQ matched individuals with ASD, ADHD and typical development, finding distinct executive function profiles for ADHD and ASD. Theory of executive dysfunction also fails to explain the ‘islets of ability’ found in some individuals with autism.
The weak central coherence theory of autism was proposed as an explanation for such strengths (Frith & Happe, 1994). Central coherence refers to an individual’s ability to derive overall meaning or ‘see the big picture’ (i.e. global information processing). Individuals with autism are hypothesized to have weak central coherence and a cognitive bias for details at the expense of meaning. Numerous studies have investigated this; Firth
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Psych 201: Chapter 2 Notes: Cognitive and Language Development
Development: the pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that continue through the lifespan.
Biological processes and genetic inheritance: Development of the brain, gains in height and weight, changes in motor skills, and puberty’s own hormonal changes.
Cognitive processes: changes in the child’s thinking, etc.
Socioemotional processes: changes in the child’s relationships….
Processes are intertwined. For Example, a child’s smile response to parent’s touch depends on all processes for different reasons.
Infancy : birth to 18-24 months.
Activities include: language development , symbolic thought, sensorimotor
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would be an adult who represents the cultural background of the child (Rathus, 2013). In order to apply the ZPD theory, teachers can observe children carefully and plan more difficult curriculum to inspire children’s abilities by stretching the competence of children (Mooney, 2013). Pairing up with other children who can learn from each other would also be helpful in this case because children’s cognitive development is not completely restricted by their physical development, and their social surroundings and interactions may also have a beneficial effect (Mooney, 2013). In the example of Margaret hammering the nails (Mooney, 2013), the educator Judy carefully evaluated the ZPD of Margaret
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Childhood Trauma and Intelligence 1
Childhood Trauma and Intelligence
College of Charleston
Childhood Trauma and Intelligence 2
Childhood Trauma and Intelligence
During early years of life, development is rapid. A child progresses from helpless
newborn to a walking, talking child with independent ideas and opinions. While the changes on
the outside are the most obvious, there are also significant developments in the brain. Studies
suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development,
including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Exposure to trauma in early childhood
can affect brain development but how does early exposure to
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Hierarchical theory is, in essence, a compromise between the two views of
intelligence- general versus distinct abilities
Fluid Intelligence §
Crystallized Intelligence §
General Memory and Learning §
Broad Visual Perception §
Broad Auditory Perception §
Broad Retrieval Ability §
Broad Cognitive Speediness §
Processing Speed §
Divergent Thinking •
Their approach was to select tasks that French children of different ages
ought to be able to do so
Introduced the concept of mental age ○
Terman and the development of IQ
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plans should be focused around the level of cognitive development. For example, if the students are in the concrete operational stage, they need “manipulatives” to help them understand more abstract ideas. Thus, the lesson plan should involve hands on activities that has concrete objects to aid understanding and enhance learning.
Piaget’s theory can be applied to when and how a child should be taught. Piaget’s theory is very student centred and the role of the teacher is as the facilitator, this basically means that the teacher should not ‘spoon feed’ the pupil the information but help them by assessing the level they are at and then setting suitable tasks for example giving children small
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Theory of Informal Social Control
· Interactional Theory
What is a Theory?
· A set of interrelated concepts, definitions, & propositions that specify relations among concepts
· Purpose is to explain and/or predict phenomena
· Developmental theories: One type of theory to explain crime
· Suggests delinquency/crime careers develop and change over time
Farrington: Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory
· Levels of AP vary over time
· Short-term AP can turn into long-term AP over time
· Process that turns AP into actual behavior
· Desistance occurs according to a person’s level of AP
· Is related to both social and individual reasons
Moffitt: Dual-Pathway Theory
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, “systematic deficits for bilingual participants, particularly in semantic fluency conditions even if responses can be provided in either language” (Bialystok, 2012). This shows that it was more difficult for bilingual children to retrieve their words.
With the coming of age, brings new development, science breakthrough, and greater debate. Groups of scientists, authors, linguists, and researchers have begun to debunk old theory and refuse to believe that bilingualism is a negative effect on a child’s cognitive development. In fact, they go on to retrieve evidence and new theories that pronounce bilingualism in childhood to be a huge benefit. Researchers are revealing that the previous studies
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The effects of cognitive performance of manipulated on a short period exercise. The following experiment is to warrant a clear understanding whether or not participants will work better after a physical activity component after being subjected to the Arousal Theory to enhance their cognitive performance. The Arousal Theory suggests that arousal of stimuli can act as a motivator towards or against cognitive performance. The participants for this experiment were asked to partake in two tasks to determine whether or not our hypothesis proved accurate, by doing so we manipulated two variables; the independent variable, the duration of an exercise task, against the dependent variable; a
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Piaget's theory of cognitive development consists of various stages, which happen at various times of a young person's life. The stage of life for an adolescent, between the ages of twelve to sixteen, is known as the formal operational stage. This stage is the fourth and final stage of cognitive development. "Formal operational thinkers can recognize and identify a problem. They can state several alternative hypotheses, execute procedures to collect information about the problems to be studied, and test the hypotheses." (Lin, 2002). Prior to adolescence thought is concentrated on much less complex thoughts.During this stage they acquire a method of thinking called hypothetical-deductive
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QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH1
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Grand Canyon University:PCN-540
April 5, 2017
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
In the article The Career Development of Mexican American Adolescent Women: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory, review of literature found inconsistencies between educational and vocational accomplishments and ambitions in Mexican American women.The investigator's chose 364 senior high school Mexican American adolescent females to support the influence of specific and social cognitive variables on vocational aspirations, objectives, stature, and traditionalism (Flores & O’Brien, 2002). The ground for the study
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IDC4U2: UNIT 1-2 TEST REVIEW
Physiological: having to do with an organism’s physical processes
Cognitive: having to do with an organism’s thinking and understanding
Psychiatry: a branch of medicine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders
Psychoanalyst: a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human
4 Goals of Psychology: psychologists seek to do four things—describe, explain, predict, and influence
Description: to describe or gather information about the behavior being studied and to present what is
Explanation: Such explanations can be called psychological principles—generally valid ideas about
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Task 2: Written Assignment
The Vygotskian theory of sociocultural development influence on the maturation of children and adolescence alike, is one to be acknowledged for its continued relativity to modern contexts. Research would suggest that Vygotsky’s concepts of assisted learning otherwise understood as scaffolding, in collaboration with a child’s zone of proximal development is what supports a child to reach their full potential within a learning environment.
Vygotsky theorised that cultural tools both tangible and intangible were vital to a child’s development. He believed that in order to achieve the best learning experience a child must be taught to use different tangible tools such
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children and young adults, makes me look back at the cognitive development theory.The cognitive development theory is based around the idea that the development of a person's thought process is influenced by how we understand and interact with the world (Wood, 2011). This being true, television commercials like this one are poison to minds of children, male and female adults, and society as a whole. Representing women in this way creates a negative stereotype that affects males and females, alike, because it allows for this way of thinking to perpetuate into a socially acceptable reality where men are better than women. This is something that is just simply not true. We are all created equal
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information about cause-and-effect relationships. This is because such studies offer a snapshot of a single moment in time; they do not consider what happens before or after the snapshot is taken. 9) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development- Basically how your culture and social interactions influence your development. Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding is closely related to the concept of the zone of proximal development. Scaffolding refers to the temporary support given to a child by More Knowledgeable Others, usually parents or teachers, that enable the child to perform a task until such time that the child can already
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, Gestalt focuses on the changes in perception allowing the learner to organize the information. Chomsky, Newell, Simon and Miller developed the information processing theory in order to address the limitations of Gestalt. The assumptions that support the information processing theory are that human memory plays a large role in the construct of knowledge and having prior knowledge of something initiatives learning.
Information processing psychology is included in behavioralism and represents an unceasing theoretical development surrounding the psychology of adaptation. It interprets cognitive processes as adaptive behavior functions and is, in a sense, a reaffirmation of earlier American
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emotional regulation, however experiential therapies now emphasise affect as well as psychobiological processes. Fosha and colleagues (2009) propose these experiential or ‘bottom up’ therapies consider insight to be the result rather than the means of therapeutic change, as opposed to cognitive ‘top down’ interventions.
The focus of this paper is to compare and contrast two family therapy models within this evolutionary spectrum; attachment theory developed in the 1950s, and post modern narrative theory developed in the 1980s. Areas examined in relation to each orientation include: theoretical perspectives, personality development, problem development, the therapist’s role, and
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: Developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. It’s practically opposed to psychoanalysis and behaviorism; it states that human nature is positive and that people is inclined to change for the better.
· Cognitive: this perspective, examines mental processes and direct behavior focusing on concepts like language, memory and thinking
· Evolutionary: according to this theory, behavior and mental processes are affected by the forces of evolution and it is based in Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory.
· Biological: this theory states that biological factors like hormones, genes, and the brain affect cognition and behavior.
· Sociocultural: proposed by Lev Vygotsky, who states that when it
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Lourdes Contreras, & María del Carmen Cano. (2016). Child-to-parent violence: The role of exposure to violence and its relationship to social-cognitive processing. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Vol 8, Iss 2, Pp 43-50 (2016), (2), 43. Retrieved from http://ejpalc.elsevier.es/en/child-to-parent-violence-the-role-exposure/articulo/S1889186116300087/#.W-MOAxNKg_U
Mcleod, S. (2018, June 06). Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Myyry, L. (2003, November 24). Components of Morality. Retrieved from http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/val/sosps/vk/myyry/componen
Television and Video Violence. (2013, November). Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/action/resources/research-in-action/protect.aspx
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context. It refers to the interactive process between teacher and learner and to the learning environment.
Modern pedagogy has been strongly influenced by the theories of major theorists such as Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner. Piaget argued that children construct an understanding of the world around them, and then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment. The cognitive theory developed by Piaget was a theory that concentrated on the human thought process in child development. Moore (2012) explains that Piaget believed that children were active learners who construct their knowledge rather than receive and store it. He also believed that
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The differences between Spearman and GardnerShaun KellyAmerican Intercontinental UniversityThe differences between Spearman and GardnerEdward Spearman's name is almost synonymous with general intelligence, or "g" for short. He invented the first form of factor analysis, and proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence. He had sort of a math formula that said every activity involves a general factor plus a specific factor. (G + S). From these theories, he said that people who do well on intelligence tests also do well on a variety of intellectual tasks. "Vocabulary and mathematical and spatial abilities". (Wilderdom, 2003). So for example of "g", Spearman would theorize that people who score
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I have read and understand the guidelines on plagiarism (found in the BA Psychology handbook) and declare that this coursework is entirely my own work. All sources have been acknowledged in the text and included in the reference section. All quotations from other authors are marked as such in the text.
Joint attention are specific types of social and cognitive developmental achievements. Specifically, joint attention is considered as two individuals sharing interests in each other and/or in an object (Akhtar and Gernsbache, 2007). The development of joint attention is vital for essential developmental processes throughout life, such as learning, language and social abilities
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Madigan, D., Stoeber, J., & Passfield, L. (2015). Perfectionism and Burnout in Junior Athletes: A Three-Month Longitudinal Study. Journal Of Sport And Exercise Psychology, 37(3), 305-315.
Rotella, R., Hanson, T., & Coop, R. (1991). Burnout in Youth Sports. The Elementary School Journal, 91(5), 421-428.
Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.
Smith, R. (1986). Toward a Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout. Journal Of Sport Psychology, 8(1), 36-50.
Smith, A., Gustafsson, H., & Hassmén, P. (2010). Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of adolescent athletes. Psychology Of Sport And Exercise, 11(6), 453-460.
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Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood
Changes in the structure of thought
· Postformal thought is cognitive development past Piaget’s formal operational stage. Thinking becomes restructured in adulthood, as life is rarely as clear and emotionally manageable as one thinks it will be in adolescence.
· Perry’s theory – after interviewing college students at the end of each year of college, Perry found that students gradually changed their thinking in the face of reality and adult responsibility.
· Dualistic thinking is representative of younger students- dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they. Truth is compared to abstract standards, and
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school, I occasionally had the
responsibility of getting my baby sister Amirah ready in the morning for preschool. At first she
needed my help, but after about four months of my help, she had learned how to properly dress
herself up. I didn’t know it at the time, but I had helped my baby sister Amirah develop one of
her fine motor skills.
In chapter 9 (Early Childhood) Cognitive Development, I learned about and reviewed in
class: the development of memory and language, Jean Piaget’s preoperational stage, the factors
in cognitive development, and the theory of mind. Approximately one month ago, right before
spring break I was working at the Partners in Learning Center. I had a conversation
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Child Maltreatment/ Trauma
Causes of behavior (to be explored in this chapter):
*Behavioral and cognitive influences
*Family, cultural and ethnic influences
Theoretical foundations (intro to chapter):
Etiology- study of causes of childhood disorders
*considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact to produce the outcomes observed over time.
Developmental Psychopathology perspective:
Approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood adolescence and beyond emphasizing importance of developmental tasks
*Abnormal development is multiply determined.
*Child and environment are interdependent. This
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used to not getting his needs met so he has no reaction. They believe the world does not have
enough love for them. A child with avoidant attachment could be because of an abusive or
neglected household. When the mother comes back into the room, they tend not to care, nor
do they show excitement in any way.
54. Piagets theory of cognitive development is made up of four different stages. The first stage
is sensorimotor, which last from birth to around two years of age. In this stage children learn by
their senses and motor behavior. They begin to get courious start shaking toys to see what kind
of sound it makes, put food/objects in their mouths to see if its edible or not. They also
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, rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) founded by Ellis (cited in Saul McLeod, 2019) aims at changing negative to illogical thoughts and patterns allowing development so more positive emotions and behaviours. Ellis claimed its appropriateness for psychological problems, e.g. anxiety disorders, depression and sexual problem. To concur with this Haaga and Davison (cited in Cox, E. 2001) found it effective to depression, aggression, anger and antisocial behaviour and treatment of negative automatic thoughts. The second treatment is Beck et al (cited in Wedding and Corsini, 2008) cognitive therapy which encourage replacement of distorted thoughts with positive thoughts e.g. through stress
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in collaboration with these services providers (Psaila, Schmied, Fowler, & Kruske, 2015).
To conclude, this essay has chosen the effects of technology and media use for parents and children in early childhood as an example to explore the challenges in parenting. In addition, it analyses the effects on child’s physical, social, cognitive, emotional development in detail by applying Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson’s child development theory. Furthermore, it demonstrates the significant roles of C&FH nurses in supporting parents and children by using family partnership model and providing universal C&FH services. Conclusively, the quality of parenting is the most perpetual effects on child’s health
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noticing and allowing thoughts and ones’ feelings without fixing those thoughts. Behavioral prevention focused on differentiating present moment awareness. Bracing the phenomena Non-judgmental and unattached observation of the area of concept. Embracing the phenomena for incorporation, identity, and personal development. A forerunner to reflection and ones’ choice.
A model case entails a real-life example of the concept that includes the characteristics of said concept. The following is a model case of the concept of mindfulness. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy represents a useful therapeutic avenue for persons with resistant depression. It established efficacy in relapse
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and relevant guidance to support in the children development. Antony & Vadakedom (2017) concluded that the authoritative parenting style is unlikely to link children with behavioural problems and suggested it as the appropriate parenting style contribute to the children development, both mentally and physically.
Antony, J., & Vadakedom, S. (1 December, 2017). PARENTING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare, 4(94), 5806-5811. doi: DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2017/1169
Lefmann, T., & Combs-Orme, T. (2013). Early Brain Development for Social Work Practice: Integrating Neuroscience with Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 640-647.
Santrock, J. W. (2017). Life-Span Development (Sixteeth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
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The Social Learning Theory of Bandura emphasises the importance of observing and modelling the behaviours, attitudes and emotional reactions of others. The Social Learning Theory explains human behaviour in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural, an environmental influences, suggesting that behaviour can be learned at the cognitive level through observing other people's actions. (Blackburn, 1993) This suggests that people are capable of imagining themselves in similar situations, and of incurring similar outcomes. Once the behaviour is learned it may be reinforced or punished by the consequences it generates. Bandura subscribed to several of the essential
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school and transition to college, they often start to define themselves,
their relationship with others, and their career. This maturation is often associated with
psychosocial and identity development and cognitive-structural and moral development theories.
Psychosocial and Identity Development
According to scholar Justin T. Sokol (2009), researches have shown that most of identity
development happens during college years. This report was based on his examination of the
THEORY TO PRACTICE
work conducted by the famous Developmental Psychologist, Erik Erikson. According to Erikson,
incoming freshmen students often fall under stage five, the adolescence stage, where identity
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the relationship between infant and caregiver is vital for secure attachment, attachment theory by its very definition ostracises the role that genetics plays in an infant’s social and emotional development as well as environmental influences.
The research surrounding attachment theory has been criticised for the methodology used as well as its ethics. The strange situation exposed infants to stressful situations which included separating the infant from a known caregiver and introducing them to a stranger, this all in an environment that was unknown. This would be a distressing situation for most infants regardless of their attachment type. Further still an experiment centred on a
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Expectations of Clients
As an REBT therapist I would expect that our communications would be kept confidential and that they would be in an environment free from judgement. Next, I would expect that my client would want to be respected as a person and treated with dignity. Thirdly, most clients would want to be taken seriously. They would want their therapist to address topics of concern that are important to them and not dismiss them as unimportant. Fourth, I would expect my client to want a knowledgeable therapist that knows what they are doing. Lastly, I would expect that my client would want a therapist who is flexible and allows the client to make choices after properly educating and informing them (Wright & Davis, 1994, pp.31-33).
Corey, G. (2017). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Boston, MA : Cengage Learning.
Wright, & Davis. (1994). The therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy: Patient perceptions and therapist responses. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 1(1), 25-45.
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components and how these combination can formed an image, without focusing the role of conative aspect as a limitation of the paper.The cognitive image is derived basically from a wide spectrum of information sources (Echtner and Ritchie, 1991). The information is then selected, organized and interpreted as what the individual is perceived (Solomon, Bamossy and Askegaard, 2002). This process which is called perception is a process of mental development that constructed an image based on several impressions from those information sources. As described by Gunn (1972) in theory of image classification, the organic images are mostly formed through non-touristic information sources such as from a
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Piaget is well known for his theory of cognitive development in infants and children. Piaget believed that there are 4 stages to cognitive development. In the first stage of development called the sensorimotor stage there is substage of development called object permanence that is very important in an infant development. Object permanence is the understanding that objects exist even after we no longer see them. Infants don’t understand this at first, if an infant is playing with a toy and you over it with a towel, they no longer think the toy exists. Out of site out of mind. There is a study that was done to see if a child’s ability to move more helps them understand object permeance
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7. Generatavity vs. stagnation - The individuals who are effective amid this stage will feel that they are adding to the world by being dynamic in their home and group. The individuals who neglect to accomplish this ability will feel ineffective and uninvolved on the planet
8. Integretity vs. despair- Now being developed, individuals think back on the occasions of their lives and decide whether they are content with the life that they lived or in the event that they lament the things they did or didn't do.
PIAGETS COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
Jean Piaget's hypothesis of subjective improvement proposes that kids travel through four distinct phases of mental advancement. His
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learned behavior will not occur unless it is energized. The major question among psychologists, in general, is whether motivation is a primary or secondary influence on behavior. That is, are changes in behavior better explained by principles of environmental/ecological influences, perception, memory, cognitive development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.
For example, we know that people respond to increasingly complex or novel events (or stimuli) in the environment up to a point and then responses decrease. This inverted-U-shaped curve of behavior is well-known and widely acknowledged. However, the major issue is one of
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Children and Adolescents with Special Needs (pp. 170-197). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Raymond, E. (2000). Cognitive Characteristics. Learners with Mild Disabilities (pp. 169-201). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company.
Social Development Theory. (No date). Retrieved November 3, 2002, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
Toth, E. E. (no date). Representational scaffolding during scientific inquiry: interpretive and expressive use of inscriptions in classroom learning. Retrieved October 19, 2002, from http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~ircs/cogsci2000/PRCDNGS/SPRCDNGS/posters/toth.pdf
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connected to the other two models; biological and social. This model recognizes that biological and genetic factors create vulnerability and predisposition for the development of addiction, it also recognizes that there is not one particular “addicted gene”, but it is polygenetic – therefore, the solution will be complex (Doweiko, 2019). This model is of utmost importance in understanding SUDs since it encompasses three models. There are various theories associated with this perspective: the moral models, learning theories, coping systems theory, personal defense theories, behavioral psychology theories, cognitive behavioral theories, psychoanalysis and the addictive personality.
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-PI consists of 181 items on which subjects indicate, on a 5 point scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree), whether the statement is a characteristic or representation of them.names.Support for the five-factor model comes from three main areas: the factor analysis of trait terms in language, the relation of trait questionnaires to other questionnaires and ratings, and the analysis of genetic (inherited) contributions to personality.GlossaryBig Five- In trait factor theory, the five major trait categories: emotionality, activity, and sociability factors.Five-factor model- A suggestion of five basic factors to human personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and
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. These disorders are a breakage in the natural development of cognitive or motor skills that are augmented before the age of twenty-two. The disorders usually have no cure and are anticipated to last indefinitely, however, most could be treatable (Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine). Developmental disorders can be grouped into specific developmental disorders and pervasive developmental disorders. Specific developmental disorders are disorders in which development is delayed in one specific area or areas, and in which basically all other areas of development are not affected (Textbook of Post-graduate Psychiatry). Specific developmental disorders are as opposed to pervasive developmental
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death tolls and regressive ideologies of totalitarianism slowly conquering
people’s minds. Few bold individuals acted out in ways such as artistic expression that
warned the dangers of a robust development in totalitarian societies. An effective way to
do so was the dissemination of fictional works that depicted exaggerated future
hypothetical dystopian societies as a result of totalitarianism. Examples of these include
the film Alphaville directed by Jean Luc Godard and the novel 1984 written by George
Orwell. This exploration hopes to analyze the relationship of individualist ideologies, a
strong motif in both works, in the formation of the two respective totalitarian societies
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Educational Psychology and Child Development
KNOWLEDGE OF STUDENTS
Bronfenbrenner’s model is a theory of educational psychology that studies human development over time. He came up with four ecological systems that an individual interacted with. Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. The first layer (microsystem) Is the first and immediate layer of the nested systems. It holds the human relationships and interactions with surroundings (ex. Parents, siblings, school environment). The second layer (mesosystem) is relationships between the family and school teachers or administrators (direct interaction). The third layer is the exosystem
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these feelings and arguing with her mother, she states she often gets angry for no reason at all. Another element of Hall’s theory is adolescents participating in risky-behaviour, for example Lola piercing her own ear with a safety pin to achieve a new look. Common examples of risky behaviours by adolescents include drink-driving, experimenting with illegal substances, un-protected sex and aggressive behaviours.
Jean Piaget – Formal Operational Stage
In part two, we witness Lola developing the ability to think abstractly as described in Piaget’s cognitive development theory. According to Piaget, at this point, a person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. During this time