Above And Below Herbivory Effects Bios 431 Plant And Animal Intxns Essay

1062 words - 5 pages

Bios 431
Essay 1: Above and Below-ground Herbivory Effects (Mundim et al 2017)
It appears that until recently, studies on the effects of herbivory have been relatively limited to the study of aboveground biomass. Recent findings by Fabiane Mundim and colleagues stress the importance of studying the effects of herbivory on both above and below ground biomass in order to better understand how plants allocate resources. From their findings herbivory above and below ground affected where and how resources were allocated. The main findings, in a controlled setting, showed that plants that suffered aboveground herbivory responded in a way that promoted aboveground growth but also elevated belowground defense. This inverse was also found to be true – plants that had belowground herbivory responded by allocating resources that promoted root growth but also elevated defenses in the aboveground leaves. Plants infected by nematodes had greater terpenoids concentrations in leaves instead of the roots and in plants were herbivory was aboveground root terpenoids concentrations were 2.4-fold higher than in other treatments (Mundim et al 2017). The allocation of resources for defenses and growth allow for the plant, Solanum lycocarpum, to survive after herbivory to above and below-ground has occurred.
One natural factor in plant growth that Mundim and colleagues did not touch upon was the role of shade in plant growth. Shade treatment may have differing consequences on above and below ground growth when combined with herbivory effects. Unequivocally, photosynthesis is important to plant metabolism. If plants in the experiment had been limited in the amount of sunlight that they received it would have added yet another variable that in the end may have had impacts on total biomass and eventual maturation. Solanum lycocarpum, as described in Mundim’s paper, is common to Brazil’s cerrados which are open physiognomies (Mundim et al 2017). Even its scientific name, Solanum lycocarpum, refers to the sun – surely if shade was introduced as a variable it would have varying effects for the biomass of the plant both above and below ground. Lack of sun may result in stunted plant fitness relative to plants that obtained sunlight, this is because the plant would not be able to fully obtain all the materials needed for metabolism. Other factors that a controlled experiment may not be able to fully duplicate is resource limitation imparted by resource completion with conspecifics or other plants.
Herbivory above and below ground was tested in a controlled setting, in a natural setting other variables could have lasting effects on plant growth and eventual production of seedlings. As mentioned previously shade could have been another natural variable affecting growth. This is important especially when one considers how in class we briefly talked about how loss of energy at one level of the food chain can spell loss of energy for other consumers. In young plants, resources are...

Other Essays On Above and Below Herbivory Effects - Bios 431 Plant and Animal intxns - Essay

Television and Its Negative Effects - English 101 - Argumentitve Essay

1121 words - 5 pages Gonzalez - 2 Joseph Gonzalez English - 101 Professor Seccombe September 30, 2018 Television and the Negative Effects It Has on Children How much is too much? Ever really wondered how television can affect your child’s brain? On average children ages 2-5 years old spend roughly about 32 hours per week in front of the television. Children ages 6-11 years old spend roughly 28 hours per week in front of the television. 71% of children ages 8-18

Junk Food and Its Effects On Humans - Chaffey 2019 - Essay

1251 words - 6 pages Aguilar 1 Junk Food and Its Effects on Humans Food is one of the essential needs for people and it give us vitality that our body needs to work appropriately. Not just that, it additionally give us an assortment of supplements, nutrients, minerals, carbohydrates, and proteins that our body requests that us every day keep it in capacity. As time passes food has changed because of the requests of the advanced world. People have less time to make a

Effects of Smoking: Pros and Cons - English 101 - Essay

947 words - 4 pages Neese 3 Kameron Neese Mr. Scheck English 101 6 March 2018 Smoking One of the most common harm that is killing people all over the world is smoking. People start this habit of smoking because of social, personal, and economic reasons (Jarvis). Everyone knows that smoking can have some horrible short and long-term effects of cancer and heart disease, but people still continue to smoke pack after pack. The main cause of this is from addiction

Air Pollution and it effects. Also Solutions and effectiveness of solutions. - Kulisc - essay

1974 words - 8 pages air in the atmosphere becomes severely contaminated.There are several types of air pollutants hovering in the atmosphere such as particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NOx) and ozone. Due to these harmful gases, dust, and smoke hovering in the atmosphere, living organisms are affected by respiratory, cardiac and several other health-damaging problems. This essay will assess air pollution, discuss ways to reduce or

Effects and Consequences of Global Warming - Toledo Technology Academy 9th grade - Essay

3062 words - 13 pages Effects and Consequences of Global Warming Different Effects and Consequences of Global Warming Damien J. Hampton Toledo Technology Academy Abstract Since 1906, the worldwide normal surface temperature has expanded in the vicinity of 1.1 and 1.6 degrees Fahrenheit even more so in touchy Polar Regions. Botkin and his colleagues looked at and talked about the diverse employments of four estimating strategies: models that consider species

Globalisation and its effects: problems with definition - Murdoch University, politics - Essay

2664 words - 11 pages POL161 Assignment 2: 2000 Word Essay Matt Benson-Parry 33553321 POL161 Assignment 2: 2000 Word Essay Matt Benson-Parry 33553321 While some critics have argued that globalisation and its effects are easy to define and quantify, others have claimed that globalisation comprises disparate and complex forces that are difficult to define and assess. Which side do you agree with and why? Globalisation​ is central to contemporary world politics and

The Effects of Drugs on the Mind and Body - Southeastern University, Intro to Psychology - Essay

588 words - 3 pages Running head: THE EFFECTS OF HYDROMORPHONE ON THE BODY 1 Running head: THE EFFECTS OF HYDROMORPHONE ON THE BODY 5 The Effects of Hydromorphone on the Body and Mind Mark S. Owens Southeastern University Abstract This paper will discuss the application and some side effects of the drug Hydromorphone. I will explore when and why the drug is administered, as well as the biological processes that take place in the central nervous and/or peripheral

racism in america and how it effects every color - english - essay

987 words - 4 pages to blame. In the essay, ​Dark Waters​ by Yusef Komunyakaa, he makes solid points of racism in Louisiana and not allowing that fear to take over him. Taking away from this essay is very hard hitting, it shows me that Racism can affect all people from all walks of life. It was hard to understand as a kid in middle school why I was getting picked on. I was not a nerd, playing sports was a very big hobby all of my life. In ​Dark Waters Komunyakaa

Effects of the Age of Digital Media and the Internet - Communications Science - Essay

1855 words - 8 pages Effects of the Age of Digital Media and the Internet on Both Interpersonal Relationships and Intercultural Communication. Bronwyn Williams VFC8TQGX3 ACCS102 22 March 2019 Contents Effects of the Age of Digital Media and the Internet on Both Interpersonal Relationships and Intercultural Communication 3 Effects of the Age of Digital media and the Internet on interpersonal relationships 4 Advantages of digital media on interpersonal relationships 5

How Disney’s Princesses Influence Body Image: The Evolution and Effects - Mt.Sac/ English 1A - essay

1934 words - 8 pages Fanous 1 Kerilos Fanous Professor Lee English 1A 21 January 2019 How Disney’s Princesses Influence Body Image: The Evolution and Effects Television, film and other media play a large and influential role in shaping young children's expectations about their own gender and body, particularly in young girls. These are the most influential princesses dating back to the first: Snow White (from 1937’s​ ​Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs​),​ ​Cinderella

coral bleaching and the effects it has on humans - long beach city college - essay

768 words - 4 pages bleaching that has plagued this world and the effects coral bleaching has on the ocean and the world.As an inspired marine biologist i take this phonomanoe to heart because of the role coral has in the ocean and the ecosystems around them.So today I will share to you all my side of coral bleaching, the pros and cons of coral, and how we can save the future of coral all around the world. The coral that hold in my hand is a victim of bleaching.Many

Similar Papers

Compensation And Benefits Plan Executive Summary 431

744 words - 3 pages above will increase retention, and meet the expectations of the CEO's at SMC.Reference:Smith, L. J. (2004). Vestibule training for today's needs. In (A. E. Dodd & J.O.) University of Phoenix (ED) (2004) Bennett-Alexander-Hartman, Noe Hollenbeck Gerhert-Wright: Fundamentals of Human, Managing Human Fourth Edition [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-text] The McGraw- Hills Companies. Retrieved April 29, 2005, from University Of Phoenix Resource, Human Resources Management/MGT 431 Site:https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/resource/resource.asp

Idealism And Truth Animal Farm Essay Grade 10 Essay

792 words - 4 pages In George Orwell’s Animal Farm we get a multiples switches for in totalitarian rule. From Mr. Jones a cruel farmer who feeds his animals to little and works them to hard, to Napolean a pig that will have you killed for a bottle of liquor. Through stupidity, narrow mindedness and pure cowardice of some animals we view the inevitable as the farm animals become ruled by pigs. Old Major probably not the first animal to think of as an animal to

1984 And Animal Farm Compatitive Essay, Both By George Orwell

462 words - 2 pages In George Orwell's 1984 and Animal Farm, reality is defined by what the leaders tell the commoners it is, and the idea of individuality and free thought are abolished in order to preserve that reality. 1984 demonstrated the concept of a perceived reality versus a true reality, and Animal Farm revealed that reality is in the beholder.The Outer Party members in 1984 were oblivious to the true reality of their lives and blindly accepted whatever

Essay On Stress Causes And Effects High School Essay

620 words - 3 pages Rumsey 3 Why Drinking Age Should NOT Be Lowered Alcohol belongs in the category of psychoactive substances one can legally buy in almost any country, according to a certain criterion. Most often, this criteria is age; in the majority of cases, it is set to 21 years. However, in a number of countries, such as Australia, China, and Russia, it is set to 18. In the United states, calls for lowering the drinking age have sounded for a rather long