Withing Politics Essay

2150 words - 9 pages

VIII. Organization of congress = staffs and specialized officesA. tasks of staff members devising proposals, negotiating agreements, organizing hearings, writing questions for members of Congress to ask of witnesses, drafting reports, and meeting with lobbyists and administratorsB. Growth and impact of staff a large staff creates conditions that seem to require an even larger staff. As staff grows, it generates more legislative work. Subcommittees proliferate to handle all the issues with which legislators are concernedC. Staff agencies - offer specialized into have come into being in large part to give congress specialized knowledge equivalent to what the president has by virtue of this ...view middle of the document...

all other bills can start in either chamber2. committees hold hearings, experts/interest groups, testify, revisions often made3. committee reports bill out to house, or senate4. bill placed on calendar to come before full chamber5. house rules committee sets rules for considerationsi. "open rule": permits amendments from the floorii. "closed rule" sets time limit on debate and restricts amendmentsiii. "restrictive rule" - permits only some amendments1. use of closed, restrictive rules growingiv. rules can be bypassed in house - rarely used1. move to suspend rules2. discharge petition3. calendar wedv. in senate - bills placed on calendar in order the majority of members chooses1. majority leader, in consultation with minority leader, schedules bills for considerationD. Floor debate - the house1. committee of the whole (procedural device for espediting house business, min. 100 members) debates amendments, decides final shape of bill, but cant pass bill2. committee sponsor of bill organizes discussion3. house usually passes sponsoring committee's version of billE. Floor debate -senate1. no rule limiting debate or relevance to matter under considerationi. any member can offer amendments to bill1. if not germane to purpose of bill; its called a rider2. committee hearing process bypassed if house already passed bill3. debate limited only by culture votei. 3/5's of senate must vote in favor of ending filibuster4. both filibuster and cloture rule becoming more commoni. since 1975, 40% cloture votes successfulii. double-tracking allows other business to be considered while filibuster in progressiii. threat of filibuster means neither party can control senate without 60 votesF. Methods of voting1. procedures in housei. voice vote (yea or nay)ii. division (standing) voteiii. teller vote - counted as members pass by twoiv. roll call vote (yea or nay by name)1. must be requested by 1/5 of members2. since 1973 done electronically2. senate voting is same except no teller vote, roll call not done electronically3. differences in senate/house versions of same billi. if minor, last house to act sends bill to other house, which usually accepts changesii. if major conference committee is appointed.1. 10-15% of bills go to conference2. decisions approved by majority by both delegations, favor senate version 60% of the time3. conference reports back to respective chamber for acceptance or rejection - no amendments - report usually accepted4. bill, initial form, goes to president for signature.i. If vetoed, bill goes back to house of origin.1. either house may override veto with 2/3 majority rule2. if both houses override, bill becomes low without presidents signature3. historically 96% of president vetoes aren't overriddenX. How members of congress voteA. representational view1. assumes members vote to please their constituents, to get reelected2. constituents must have a clear opinion of the issue, the legislators vote on issuea. strong correlation on civil rights...

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