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index not a female based index.In essence the Gender development index is a measure for the achievement of both women and men in three important dimensions: life expectancy, educational attainment and adjusted real income (after taking note of inequality between women and men). In essence the GDI is the HDI (Human development index) however taking into consideration gender inequalities. On another end the Gender empowerment index is one that focuses on three variables that reflect women's participation in political decision-making, access to professional opportunities and earning power. A lot of Arab countries objected to this since these sub indexes are extremely low in Arab countries and do
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isolated than the rest of Canada with a lower quality of healthcare. Secondly, the housing crisis in Canada is a problem that continues to worsen. The housing market in Canada exhibits high demand, but low supply causing prices/rent fees of estates to be very expensive which many people cannot afford. An example of this housing crisis taking its toll is seen in suicidal seniors who are forced onto the streets of British Columbia because they can no longer afford to pay rent (ctvnews.ca/canada). My last reason I as to why I disagree that Canada is a country to be proud of is the healthcare system. Regardless of the fact Canada scored a 0.913 on the Human Development Index in 2015 (according to world
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explore alternative measures such as the Capability Approach, Human Development Index and the Social Development Index, which regardless of their own limitations, offer a more holistic view of human welfare.
Geographer Garrett Nagle views development as not merely an increase in per capita income but also as an accompanying modernisation of the economy (Nagel, 2015).
For a long time, states have considered economic progress as a means to achieve social progress for their citizens. This perspective is based staunchly in neoclassical economic theory, where the levels of consumption in an economy at the individual or household level are considered derivative of utility. Any measure
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accurate to experts.GNP is more inaccurate because it only gives the average of how much each person has in the nation. It is only an average and extremes like billionaires can overwhelm the poorest people in the country. It is generally known that half the world lives on 2 US dollars everyday. Perhaps there might be a rich country in GNP merely by the fact that some people are extremely rich and can easily increase the GNP even though the poverty stricken people outnumber the rich.The human development index contains three indexes that partly measure the countries development. Life Expectancy Index, Education Index and GDP Index. Life Expectancy Index shows an average of the maximum amount of
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Migration has existed since human beings started to move in order to secure life opportunities diverse environments. This is how the migration of man have always been and possible will always be. It will be key factor in our past history and in present times. Man’s existence has always been tied to Migration, which is why in today's world, migrations from small or rural vicinities to large cities must be promoted to increasing social, economic and cultural development.
Migrations increase economic development, while allowing sustainability and employment opportunities. Effectively in today's societies, the increase of the index of individuals in a population helps create
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OECD's approach on human's well-being evaluation comprises three elements including economic well-being, quality of life and socioeconomic and natural systems sustainability of where people live (OECD 2012). Thus, GDP can only measure the material side of human welfare. Furthermore, GDP receives criticism of its ability to accurately measure economic well-being. GDP says nothing about the income distribution and fails to reflect the inequality of society.
McConnell, CR, Brue, SL & Flynn, SM 2009, Economics: Principles, problems, and policies, Boston McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
UNDP 2018a, Table 1. Human Development Index and its components, viewed 3 July 2019,
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What Is Human Development?
Human development refers to the process of enriching the lives of people, as opposed to the economy in which these people live. (United Nations, 1990) Human development is measured using the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI is based on three elements, namely the health, education, and income of people. The HDI is used to determine whether or not a country is developing or developed, based on these 3 aspects. (STUDY GUIDE – REFERENCIING????)
In order to fully illustrate the HDI, this essay will look at the HDI ranking for South Africa in 2011 and again in 2015, and thus compare the scores, and discuss the changes based on the elements that the HDI is measured
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. Efforts to Promote Sustainability
a. Kyoto Protocol
b. Alberta Tar Sands
c. Alternative Energy Sources
13. Sustainable Prosperity
a. Practicing stewardship with the resources of the present day to ensure their availability for the present need and the need of future generations.
i. Sustainable development – UN
ii. Global Interdependence
1. Balancing global economics and prosperity can be challenging – Gildan Industry
14. Measures of Prosperity
a. GDP – Gross Domestic Product
i. Measures the health of a nation’s economy and the prosperity of its people – average income of nation’s income
1. Can be deceiving
b. HDI – Human Development Index
i. Uses GDP, life expectancy at birth and
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understanding of human psychological development
and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. The theory is termed ‘tripartite’ simply
because, like Plato, Freud distinguished three structural elements within the mind, which he
called id, ego, and superego. The id is the part of the mind in which the instinctual sexual drives
which require satisfaction are situated; the superego contains the "conscience," namely,
socially-acquired control mechanisms which have been internalized and which are usually
imparted in the first instance by the parents; the ego is the conscious self that is created by the
dynamic tensions and interactions between the id and the superego, and has the task of
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, globalisation and security. Area,42(3), 293-301.
JOURNAL: Biosecurity and Research: Minimizing Adverse Impacts – In this article, biosecurity research is the main focus. They are concerned with actions being taken relating to biosecurity and the impacts of them. Whether or not more security for a specific biological agent is required is a topic in this article as well. (EMAIL) Gaudioso, J., & Salerno, R. (2004). Biosecurity and Research: Minimizing Adverse Impacts. Science, 304(5671), 687-687.
JOURNAL: The Development of an Exposure Risk Index as a Rational Guide for Biosecurity Programs - This article includes how biosecurity programs and disease control measures can be directed at those areas
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) are dominating the equity market, generating as much as 70% of the volume. According to one study, at the current phase of markets’ development, it is theoretically possible for algorithmic trading (and especially high- frequency strategies) to exceed the returns of index strategy. However, in terms of market volatility, it was not found any evidence for a detrimental impact of either algorithmic trading or high frequency trading. That shouldn’t be a surprise. Technological advance makes super profits, capitalists are greedy, so technological advance spreads quickly, super profits disappear and the consumer benefits. Well it is not a perfect analogy but we can debate on this unconventional or out of the box idea.
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conception and that abortion is akin to murder since the fetus is a
person with the same legal and moral rights as a “living” person. Opponents
of abortion believe their position is in accordance with their deeply held
regard for the “sanctity of life” (Goggin, 1993). Illustrative of this position is
that at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development
in Cairo, Egypt, delegates from the Vatican demanded that all references to
unsafe abortions be deleted because all abortions are unsafe for the fetus.
Pro-choice supporters maintain that pro-life supporters have a selective
commitment to the sanctity of life. They argue that if state restrictive abortion
laws reflect this respect
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a more economically competitive region this enables lower prices for goods and services (APEC, 2006).There are truly no disadvantages of APEC. By having economic growth, this leads to social advancement. During the first 10 years of operation there has been much advancement. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Index for lower income APEC economies improve by nearly 18%. Poverty in East Asian APEC economies fall by about a third (165 million people), mostly as a result of strong economic growth. 195 million new jobs created in APEC Member Economies, including 174 million in lower income economies. Infant mortality is falling and life expectancy rising in lower
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Sanctions as Instruments of US Foreign Policy 1
Sanctions as Instruments of US Foreign Policy
ISAAC OLUSEGUN OLUBO
US FOREIGN POLICY IN THE POST COLD WAR
The US is among the countries that widely use sanctions in efforts to compel a certain government(s) to change their policy appropriately. Usually, the embargos involve the restrictions on trade, investment and other commercial activities. The US mainly applies sanctions to countries which violate human rights, sponsor terror acts, trade unfairly or develop weapons of mass destruction. Depending on the level of the violation, the severity can be mild or extreme. Embargos have become the vehicles of non
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the new sales process.The third issue is that of employee development and training. Riordan Manufacturing has not done much in the promotion of training and development of their current employees in the last couple of years. Employee's growth and development is important to continue to build future leaders for the company. This is a strategic advantage for companies to provide and take part of their employees' personal growth and development. Training and development not only helps to attract top performers but will also provide incentive for retention (Dreher & Dougherty, 2001).The last issue that needs to be review is that the Human Resource division has had little input on the business
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, it can also limit other important developmental activities. For instance, doing puzzles, using scissors, reading books, singing and dancing, and making art and crafts as well as holding markers or crayons with thumb, index and middle finger. However, some educational apps can be child friendly, fun, interactive and up to date. Some also can aid hand-eye-coordination and captures attention of young learners. Nevertheless, these apps hinder gross motor skills, uses limited senses and develops only specific fine motor skills (Heider & Renck Jalongo, 2014). Therefore, when parents fail to limit and manage screen time, it could have negative impacts on children’s physical development and
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This article was accepted January 4,
The authors jointly conducted the re-
search and wrote the article.
The authors are grateful to the following
individuals who have significantly con-
tributed to our understanding of the is-
sues: Lachlan Forrow, MD, Jack Geiger,
MD, Robert Gould, MD, John Loretz,
Patrice Sutton, MPH, and the anony-
mous reviewers of this article.
The authors acknowledge Patrice
Sutton, MPH, and Robert Gould, MD,
for the development of Table 1.
Human Participant Participation
No protocol approval was needed.
1. Institute of Medicine, Committee for
the Study of Public Health. The Future of
Public Health. Washington, DC
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In recent years, researchers have become interested in the emergence of tourism in
developing countries. It is evident that tourism is growing rapidly and is heavily relied on as
an important source of income and employment. In its essence, the term poor country or
developing country are normally shown as a country which has a less developed industrial
base and a low human development index. For example, there is an increase in international
tourist arrivals such as in 2011, there were about 983 million international tourist arrivals.
Another example will be its accessibility for the poor. Tourism is a very labour-intensive
sector and is consisted of many small companies altogether. Many
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with the development of agriculture. But within the last 100,000 years, the hunting and burning practices of Palaeolithic people, along with climate change, drove many large mammals and birds to extinction. North- and South America and Australia lost up to 86% of large mammals soon after humans arrived – species such as giant wombats, killer ducks, ground sloths, mammoths, sabre-tooth cats and moas.
The most common reason for extinction is habitat loss. Ecosystems from wetlands to prairies and cloud forests to coral reefs are being cleared or degraded for crops, cattle, roads and development. Even fragmenting habitats with roads or dams can make species more vulnerable. Fragmentation reduces
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Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 21-34.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2017, Basic income as a policy option, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, https://www.oecd.org/social/Basic-Income-Policy-Option-2017.pdf
Philippon, T & Reshef, A 2012, “Wages and Human Capital in the U.S. Finance Industry: 1909-2006”, The quarterly journal of economics, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 1609;1551;-1609.
Sloman, P 2018, “Universal Basic Income in British Politics, 1918-2018: From a ‘Vagabond's Wage’ to a Global Debate”, Journal of Social Policy, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 625-642.
Solt, F 2016, “The Standardized World Income Inequality Database”, Social Science Quarterly, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 1267-1281.