2003 words - 9 pages
FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE‘S CONTRIBUTIONS
Ferdinand de Saussure (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the twentieth century. He is widely considered the "father" of twentieth century linguistics, and his work laid the foundation for the approach known as structuralism in the broader field of the social sciences. Although his work established the essential framework of future studies, his ideas contained many limitations and fundamental weaknesses as later scholars recognized that underlying structure and rules, while informative, cannot be the sole determinant of meaning and value
429 words - 2 pages
When linguists claim that their discipline is the scientific study of language, they have in mind certain principles which distinguish between a scientific and a non-scientific study of language. First, linguistics is objective, that is, it considers all languages to be equal. For a linguist, there are no 'primitive', 'pure', 'beautiful', 'cultural', or 'sophisticated' languages. Objectivity is difficult to attain because language is so familiar to us that we can hardly dissociate ourselves from it. The objective study of language is hindered by various cultural, social and historical misconceptions about certain languages. Linguistics has demonstrated that any language, however 'primitive
2623 words - 11 pages
Linguistics Postcards Summaries.
1. Podcast: That’s What They Say
Episode: Sometimes we stumble on ambiguous prepositions
Date: November 26, 2018
Rebecca Kruth, hostess of Weekend Edition on Michigan Radio, is discussing with Anne Curzan, English
Professor from University of Michigan, who studies linguistics and the history of the English language
about why the verb “stumble” has so many prepositions that confuses people.
There is a listener who name Allen, having an inquiry about how to use preposition after the verb
“stumble”. He was confused with this verb and its preposition when he read the book review of Barbara
521 words - 3 pages
Language is a cognitive process and speech is one delivery system for language. In this essay I will be discussing why it is impossible for animals to learn human language as well as the differences and comparisons between Non-human and human communication and what is so unique about both species ability to communicate using language, sign language, songs and calls and dances.
What separates humans from animals?
Humans use language to communicate a shared meaning or message, unlike animals who use different tools and methods to get a message across
Ants use pheromones and sound to indicate their social status and distress, bees dance to tell each other where to find honey and
1146 words - 5 pages
Homework 3: Semantics & Pragmatics (40 points)
Due at the start of class Monday, February 25, 2019
1. Lexical Semantics. In what way are the following pairs of words related (e.g., synonymy)? In cases of hyponymy, indicate which word is the hyponym and which word is the hypernym. (10 points)
a. shallow deep
They both are related to the depth of something
b. mature ripe
They are both related to the age of
c. table furniture
A table is a type of furniture
d. single married
They are both related to the relationship status of a person
e. move run
Running is a type of movement
f. sofa couch
They are both types of
1152 words - 5 pages
Wh-constructions in Japanese
Japanese is one of the languages that exemplifies wh in-situ:
(1) Hanako-ga kinoo [dare-to] [susi-o] tukurimasita ka?
Hanako-NOM yesterday who- with sushi-ACC made QU
‘Who did Hanako make sushi with_yesterday?’
(2) Hanako-ga kinoo [tomodati-to] [nani-o] tukurimasita ka?
Hanako-NOM yesterday friend-with what-ACC made QU
‘What did Hanako make_with her friends yesterday?’
(Tallerman 2011: 248)
The wh-words dare-to ‘who with’ and nani-o ‘what’ do not move, they stay in-situ. The subjects in both examples are in the sentence-initial position. There is a question marker ka at the end of the sentence, and it is said to be ambiguous, it can either be a complementizer as
1079 words - 5 pages
Communication and language was the beginning of civilisation and as time passed, we humans believed we are not the only beings with the needed vocal cords to be able to produce language and communicate with each other. Although non-humans are known to able to communicate, researchers wanted to know whether or not they are able to replicate spoken language, Wikipedia (2019, para.6) as language has been defined “to a doubly articulated system, in which signs are formed for objects and states and then combine syntactically, in ways that determine how their meanings will be understood”. For example, child eats food. This uses the same words but the sentence construction will be understood by
1626 words - 7 pages
Table of contents:
1. Cover page
2. Table of contents
3. Introduction & What studies were conducted
4. Does this prove or disprove language abilities & Why some linguists believe this does or doesn’t show evidence of human language abilities.
5. Why some linguists believe this does or doesn’t show evidence of human language abilities & Conclusion
Human language abilities in apes
Pointing is a universal language to convey a message and acts as a substitute to spoken word. Infants’ point, a gesture which scientists agree is a form of word learning but when an ape points it’s questioned. Patrick M. Greenfield (1991) argues that language and use of tools conceal a cognitive basis
1372 words - 6 pages
30 April 2018
Bilingualism: The Good & the Bad
The power of language on Earth and in our lives is incredible; truly incomparable. It serves a beautiful purpose in communicating the thoughts, ideas, feelings, and opinions of its users, while also becoming a tool for creating relationships, friendships, and cultural ties. Language is capable of shaping our perception of reality and acting as the light to our ever so dynamic minds. Linguist Edward Sapir believes language is a means for carrying out expressions of thoughts, sentiments, perceptions, and value characteristics of community, while also being a representation of a fundamental expression of
363 words - 2 pages
Summary of "˜Creole' Despite the national authenticity that are revealed by the characteristics of creole languages, negative attitudes regarding the sounds, the grammatical features, and the social origin of the speakers contribute to attach a persistent stigma to these recently formed languages. Pejorative terms are used by people of various backgrounds - whether they are educated professionals of linguistics, or native speakers from the lower class "" as descriptions of Creole languages.Summary of "˜Heterosexuality" In a heterosexual system, sex/gender dimorphism is shaped by the design of social practices, norms, as well as economic and legal arrangements. Heterosexual
502 words - 3 pages
Anthropology is the study of humankind, in general, the study of humans everywhere. Past humanities go beyond several generations and the study of anthropology allows us to understand these generations, their complex relationships, and the structures of various cultures for the benefit of understanding humanity.This study of humankind allows us to study humans in many ways and can be divided into four related fields - the study of physical or biological anthropology, the study of linguistics, the study of archaeology, and the study of cultural or social anthropology.The study of physical or biological anthropology, includes topics such as nutrition, development, forensics, and primates
1840 words - 8 pages
Masako Yanase (2001), is when a word can be associated with two or more distinct meanings, whether that be obvious or subtle. However, there can be a level of lexical ambiguity when trying to distinguish between whether a word is homonymous and polysemous, something that has been investigated extensively within the field of linguistics. In order to resolve this issue, it is proposed that linguists either take a synchronic or diachronic approach to the categorisation of words, which can generate further problems in deciding lexical category. As a result, this essay offers an explanation and critical analysis of both of the difficulties surrounding lexical classification and competing
1378 words - 6 pages
With reference to relevant theories, describe the difference that applied linguists such as Stephen Krashen have made between ‘acquisition’ and ‘learning’. State how this has influenced the world of English Language Teaching.
In 1970s, Stephen Krashen (1981), an famous expert in the field of linguistics, proposes the Second Language Acquisition Theory. He states that humans become fluent in a language in two ways: by acquiring it or by learning it. Thus, there is a ongoing discussion about whether all people can acquire a second language just like acquire their first language or not. Also, people wonder that which way is the better one to learn a second language
577 words - 3 pages
Concepts & Methods of Visual Culture
Due date: October 8, 2018
One goal of this first assignment is to encourage you to make use of the concept of the sign as it is understood by linguistics and semiotics. As we have discussed in class, the two components of the sign are the signifier and the signified – in language the signifier is audio-visual (also in contemporary film, performance art, theater, dance, etc.), whereas other cultural phenomena make use of only one of these dimensions (radio and recordings: audio // painting and sculpture: visual). When writing this paper, please be sure to use the concepts of the sign, the signifier, and the
596 words - 3 pages
There are various ways to study the English language. If one is seeking to go in depth with his or her study, there is linguistics, which is the scientific study of language. There is phonology, which is essentially studying the phonetics and sounds within the language (Linguistic Glossary). One way of studying language that can be vital is morphology, which studies how words are formed and how they are related to other words in the same language.
There are a couple linguistic elements – as they are called – that are somewhat easier to use to study and learn more about the language: lexicology and syntax. Lexicology is “the study of the structure of…the vocabulary of a language
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Coates (1993:204) says "There is a need for more detailed sociolinguistic studies at both individual and group levels." I will finish with a quote by Coates (1993:204) who significantly points out "we must remember that gender differentiation in language does not exist in a vacuum: it interacts in a complex way with other kinds of social differentiation."BibliographyBaalen, I.V. (2001) 'Male and female language: growing together?' Internet Journal :Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics,19th April 2001 Available from : http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/hsl_shl/van%20Baalen.htm [Accessed 19 January 2006]Bayley, R. (2002). The Quantitative Paradigm In Chambers, JK, Trudgill, P
908 words - 4 pages
completely unbiased. Furthermore, in Noam Chomsky’s book ‘Manufacturing Consent’ he claims that mass media tell us what those in power need them to tell us. And that democracy is staged with the help of media that work as propaganda machines. Chomsky is known as the father of modern linguistics.
This paper will benefit everyone who consumes content that is distributed extensively, such as in social media and in traditional media as well. This covers most people today. In one form or another, every person uses technology. Whether it is to keep track of news or for entertainment, they are all vulnerable to media manipulation. The author hopes to raise awareness on the issue, so each person
2129 words - 9 pages
today, Avram Noam Chomsky was highly influenced by his professors. Chomsky was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Wikipedia). Noam Chomsky was the son of William Chomsky. At the age of eight, Chomsky began reading Hebrew literature which he later taught classes in. In 1945 Noam Chomsky studied philosophy and linguistics at university of Pennsylvania. He was there greatly influenced by his professor of philosophy, Zellig Harris (Wikipedia). Chomsky joined the staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1955 and in 1961 was appointed full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics. At this time Chomsky became highly involved in public politics. Noam
2016 words - 9 pages
position they have. If these positions cannot be changed, then neither can one’s methodological position. Constructivists, who believe human behaviour can be observed and interpreted, use qualitative methods. Positivists, who see unity between social and natural science, will mostly use quantitative methods.
Constructivist methodology focuses on the interpreting behaviour and understanding meaning through the collection of qualitative data. Meaning matters in two different senses. Meaning can be the psychological property of an agent when it is possible to understand what reasons or motivations they had. Meaning can also be a property of language. Linguistics can be seen as a shared
1074 words - 5 pages
already work for a language school, I will ask if I can teach a few lessons for them so this will give me some more experience within the classroom environment. I have thought a lot about eventually taking my DELTA, but after speaking to several experienced teachers, I think an MA in Applied Linguistics would be the next qualification I would like to study for, after completion of my degree. This will give me the qualifications I would need to be a school director in a local language school.
J. Scrivener, Learning Teaching, The Essential Guide to English Language Teaching.
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