Paper On Broadcasting

567 words - 3 pages

Over the past decades, the importance of on-air networks has changed immensely. Their roles have changed because of the many different stages it went through.In the 1950's, cable only carried about 5 or 6 channels, which were all local stations. With the use of the community antenna television (CATV), signals could be transmitted by wire to local subscribers. CATV operators soon after they found ways to augment their services by using microwave relays, which enabled the programs to be delivered a farther distance.Although, in the 1960's, broadcasters began to realize that augmented CATV transmitted to distant cities appeared to be more fuzzy than normal. In 1962, the FCC began to use microwave relay licenses as a justification for regulating cable systems that imported distant station signals. There soon became a demand for domestic satellites (domsats), but was delayed because of the well-developed existing national systems of microwave and coaxial cables.Finally in 1972, the FCC adopted an "open-skies" policy, which allowed financed and technically qualified business firms to use satellites for domestic use. The Western Union's Westar I was the first American domsat. This satellite, like other domsats, operates as point-to-point, rate-regulated communication services.Deregulating television receive-only (TVRO) antennas was a second satellite-related FCC decision in 1979. These antennas were used to pick up programs relayed by a satellite. This decision opened the way to satellite use for transmitting programs to cable systems. Both domsats and TVRO offered a less expensive way of obtaining programs to attract subscribers.Ted Turner played a major part in changing television's role. Turner, an entrepreneur, created superstations which greatly expanded cable's program menu. It all started in 1970 when he decided to buy an Atlanta station, WTCG, and renamed it WTBS (Turner Broadcasting System). The schedule was packed with movies and sports, and later expanded to creating other superstations like Cable News Network (CNN) in 1980, and Turner Network Television (TNT), in 1988.Home Box Office (HBO) led to the development of pay (or premium) cable in 1972. This was an advertising-free channel paid a monthly fee on top of a charge for advertising-supported channels by subscribers. In the 1980's, more programs made only for cable were formed such as Music Television (MTV) in 1981, and the Weather Channel in 1982. Pay-per-view in 1984, allowed viewers to order programs for a one-time fee.In 1985, wireless cable appeared as the first multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS). Wireless cable is a system that uses microwave radio signals to distribute cable programming to subscribers. MMDS's coverage is limited to about 15 miles. In 1997, local multipoint distribution service (LMDS) was formed by the FCC, which restricted coverage to about 3 miles. Other wireless cables such as master antenna television (MATV), satisfied MATV (SMATV), and direct broadcasting satellite (DBS), are all apart of the changing the role of networks.Over the years, networking has changed its face in many ways. In the future, we should expect more changes, which will be able to suit our changing lives.


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