1. Was continually re elected because he promised political and economic reform
2. Caused monumental economic progress by using railroads to help boost economy. Looked good on paper but was a dictator because of his oppression of most people.
1. Had Madero arrested so he couldn't win the election; had fraudulent ballots made so diaz could win
2. Opposing candidates and political parties were either jailed or mysteriously disappeared
when going against diaz.
1. Fueled revolution because diaz made too many false promises to the citizen. Upper Middle class wanted more political power so they turned to Madero to fight in an election against Diaz.
1. Matías Romero and José Y. Limantour (economic advisors), allied with hacienda owners,Telesforo García, Francisco Cosmes, Francisco Bulnes, Pablo Macedo
2. Jefe politicos were local officials that helped enforce diaz’s rules and helped enforce his economic policies. Became a lucrative position which could lead to being in inner circle.
3. Cientificos helped diaz maintain his power by establishing economic platforms, political stances, and most importantly a legal team to protect him. After revolution, became a derogatory term towards those that accumulated large amounts of wealth at the expense of the mexican people.
4. The caballada was the concept that congress would be the ones to help achieve Diaz’s goals and reforms. Means “herd of horses.”
1. Restricted the power of clergy and military
2. Non-secular education
3. Still existed because no one recognized the constitution of 1857
4. Was not enforced because the church and the military would not acknowledge it since it targeted them
II. Economic Causes
A. Land Confiscation
1. Tierras Baldias are the mexican badlands, a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water.
2. Ejidos were an area of common land where community members individually farm designated parcels to maintain the area. Ejidos were considered ‘social property,’ and the Mexican constitution gave the ownership to the government, and the power of the seizing of lands.
3. Foreign ownership/hacendados ownership created short term causes due to the misuse of power in the owners. The campesinos were treated unfairly and they felt they deserved more rights as they greatly outnumbered their owners.
B. Foreign Dependence
1. The United States invested incredible amounts of money to build railroads to help their exports and trade with Central America.
2. The United States possessed the expertise of industrialization and infrastructure because they knew the most effective ways to expand through experience, and what would help benefit their economy in the most profitable way.
3. The United States owned and manufactured the equipment that aided in Mexico’s industrialization, they wanted to have everything to do with Mexico because they saw great economic benefits brewing.
4. If the United States, among others, were to stop their financial support, Mexico’s expansion and growth would have gone stagnant.
C. Labor Issues
1. The poor land quality lead to a decline in agriculture, so agricultural workers could not find employment.
2. The working class was treated horribly, from dangerous conditions to poor wages, the workers were stuck in a never ending cycle of debt to their employers. As a social class, the workers revolted to receive the rights they deserved.
D. Economic Cycles
1. Mexico’s hyperinflation was problematic for all classes because it caused everyone but the upper class to be careful with their money, so the manufacturing slowed and caused workers to be out of work.
2. The Mexican Depression of 1907 was another short term cause of the Mexican Revolution because it showed how reliant Mexico was on the United States for support, and how the vulnerability of foreign markets could greatly impact the Mexican economy.
E. Food Production Stagnation
1. The cause of the crop failure from 1907 to 1910 was from a long drought period, causing the spiking of food prices, decline in wages and earnings, and even famine in the lower and middle classes.
2. Hacendados allowed land to sit idle because they sometimes did not have the manpower to work on so much land. This caused stagnant food production because it was not the best usage of the available land and resources.
3. Hacendados did not invest in new technology to grow food because there wasn’t much new technology being innovated. This caused stagnant food production due to the lack of change of practice, the same method was implicated and it yielded the same results.
4. The focus on cash crops stagnated food production because it was a high risk high reward deal. Though the payoff was higher, a crop failure might result in massive economical damage.
III. Social Causes:
1. Women were discriminated against in Mexico because of their sex. -They were
overlooked by Mexican Men and were seen as weaker and just were told to work in the
house and perform menial tasks. They lacked rights and the ability to get an education.
2. Encomienda System – Even though abolished under the Constitution of 1857, the
encomienda system still exists.
3. Why does the encomienda system discriminate? - The encomienda systems
discriminates against those in lower classes because it allows for no socio-economic
mobility and creates a stagnant work force where only the high ranking officials are able
4. How does especially discriminate against the indios? - Because the indios were treated
as slaves, were very poor, and faced racism they were outcast from society. The strict
caste system and lack of socio-economic mobility oppressed the indio population.
B. Alcoholism –
1. Why was alcoholism’s prevalence a short term cause and at times a pretext cause of
engagements of the Mexican Revolution? - Because alcoholism allowed a scapegoat to
perform tasks that sparked the revolution and created anger that led to the revolution.
C. Illiteracy –
1. What was the literacy rate of the Mexican people during 1910? If not completely
illiterate, who was responsible for education? How did that education keep the Mexicans from revolting? The literacy rate was little to nothing with only the high classes being literate in early 20th century Mexico. The education was put on by the Porfiriato which allowed for him to influence what the next generation thought about his reign over Mexico.
2. Why would more education be a demand of the Mexican Revolution? - Because more education allows for more socio-economic mobility and more opportunity within society and those were goals of many oppressed classes.
D. Roman Catholic Church Influence –
1. How influential was the Roman Catholic Church on daily
Mexican lives? - It was very influential as the church was corrupt, seized village lands and oppressed some classes in Mexico.
2. Why did the Roman Catholic Church support the Porfiriato? - Because the church was dependant on the Porfiriato for stability within the church in Mexico and the church reaped some economic benefits under the Porfiriato.
1. Most of the officers from the Mexican Army were incompetent because they were picked based on loyalty and connections, not on who would do the best job. Diaz picked officers that would blindly follow orders and would stick with him until the end which resulting in mostly incompetent officers. Most men were poorly equipped and trained because some believed a large and competent army could revolt and threaten their political power. Indios were important in the federales because they were forced to join. They wouldn’t have to pay the Indios as much and they were given empty promises which caused them to rally together.
2. The guardias rurales were a government funded police force. They were important because they essentially became muscle for the porfiriato that would beat up opponents and enforced his ideals.
3. Pan o Palo is a phrase used to describe the order of his rule was pan o palo("bread or a beating"—literally "bread or the club"), meaning that one could either accept what was given willingly (often a position of political power) or else face harsh consequences (often death).
4. Their primary purpose was to beat up opponents and enforce the Porfiriato ideals and wants.
5. C. Local Caudillos and their private armies –
Who did the local caudillos fight? - The local caudillos often fought amongst themselves over disputes with their private armies.
Who was a part of their Armies? - their followers, members of the campesino class who worked for them.
What promises did the local caudillos promise to their army members to join the fight? - They offered promise of freedom and equal rights.