Social Change and Social Order Theories
Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim have all been credited as the founding fathers of sociology and have had a great influence on the field of sociology. The three scholars offered differing sociological lenses when it comes to social change. Marx stressed capitalism and class conflict when considering social change. Weber expressed that social change came from rationalism and bureaucracy. Durkheim associated social change with transformations of the structure of social relations and functionalism. When referencing social order Marx and Weber explained it as being a result of class systems. While Durkheim relates social order to the division of labor.
Marx explained that societies are characterized by capitalism. Marx distinguished four types of production this includes; capitalism, ancient society, primitive communism, and feudalism. Those who have control over production capitalize on the labor of those who are not in control of production. Class relations were used as a way to explain these types of production. In a capitalist society, the bourgeoisie forced the proletariat to work in order to survive. In ancient society, owners took advantage of slaves. In a feudal society, Lords utilized serfs. According to Marx taking advantage of means of production leads to class conflict.
Weber credited a product of rationalization as responsive to social change. He believed that the world was governed by rationality. Marx also stated that bureaucratic organizations were necessary for society to function. In order for bureaucratic growth to occur social change must happen. Economics greatly affected social change. The production and consumption of goods were essential for the survival of society.
Durkheim proposed that in order for society to function we must rely on each other. This is essential if we plan to move forward as a society. Society is held together by shared interests and common goals as a society. In order for social change to occur there needs to be a collective goal. As a society, we must share common values and social norms. Durkheim's social change theory differed from the theories of other sociologists.
Marx proposed a two-class system when referring to social order. Marx believed that were bourgeois, and proletariat. Bourgeois was considered the capitalists of society. The bourgeois owned property and exploited the proletariat for labo...