Module 16 Basic Concepts of Sensation and Perception
Sensation: The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception: The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Bottom-up processing is sensory analysis that begins at the entry level, with information flowing from the sensory receptors to the brain.
Top-down processing is information processing guided by high-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions by filtering information through our experience and expectations.
Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, it is the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
Subliminal stimuli are those that are too weak to detect 50 percent of the time; below the absolute threshold.
Subliminal sensation exists, but such sensations are too fleeting to enable exploitation with subliminal messages.
Subliminal persuasion may produce a fleeting and subtle but not powerful or enduring effect on behavior (Greenwald, 1992).
For an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount); the exact proportion varies, depending on the stimulus.
Motivation and Emotion Perceptions are also influenced by our motivation and emotions.
Walking destinations look farther away when fatigued Emotions and motives also influence our social perceptions Module 19 Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning Learning: Process of acquiring through experience new and relativ...