Summary chapter 1: introduction to the science of psychology.
To discuss the different aspects about psychology, it is necessary to know what it means: it’s the SCIENTIFIC study of mental processes and behavior. Psychology has four main goals such as describe, which is reporting what is observed; research, that is to organize and understand observations of behaviors; predict, which is about outcomes; and control, that uses research to shape, Professionals (psychologists) can work in several fields such as: clinical/counseling, educational, developmental, scholar, industrial/organizational.
Psychology has many major perspectives, all of them try to explain the human nature of behavior, and these include:
· Psychoanalytic: its main developer was Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), who focused his attention on abnormal aspects. Furthermore, he believed that personality and behavior are influenced by the expectations of society and inner desires (sexual and aggressive impulses).
· Behavioral: mainly developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). He made a really famous experiment with a dog, which salivated in response to a stimulus or events in the environment; this was known as classical conditioning. Later on, B. F skinner studied the relationship between behaviors and their consequences, this is called operant conditioning, where a certain behavior is either rewarded or punished.
· Humanistic: Developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. It’s practically opposed to psychoanalysis and behaviorism; it states that human nature is positive and that people is inclined to change for the better.
· Cognitive: this perspective, examines mental processes and direct behavior focusing on concepts like language, memory and thinking
· Evolutionary: according to this theory, behavior and mental processes are affected by the forces of evolution and it is based in Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory.
· Biological: this theory states that biological factors like hormones, genes, and the brain affect cognition and behavior.
· Sociocultural: proposed by Lev Vygotsky, who states that when it...