Introduction To The Science Of Psychology Introduction To Psychology Assignment

645 words - 3 pages

Summary chapter 1: introduction to the science of psychology.
To discuss the different aspects about psychology, it is necessary to know what it means: it’s the SCIENTIFIC study of mental processes and behavior. Psychology has four main goals such as describe, which is reporting what is observed; research, that is to organize and understand observations of behaviors; predict, which is about outcomes; and control, that uses research to shape, Professionals (psychologists) can work in several fields such as: clinical/counseling, educational, developmental, scholar, industrial/organizational.
Psychology has many major perspectives, all of them try to explain the human nature of behavior, and these include:
· Psychoanalytic: its main developer was Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), who focused his attention on abnormal aspects. Furthermore, he believed that personality and behavior are influenced by the expectations of society and inner desires (sexual and aggressive impulses).
· Behavioral: mainly developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). He made a really famous experiment with a dog, which salivated in response to a stimulus or events in the environment; this was known as classical conditioning. Later on, B. F skinner studied the relationship between behaviors and their consequences, this is called operant conditioning, where a certain behavior is either rewarded or punished.
· Humanistic: Developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. It’s practically opposed to psychoanalysis and behaviorism; it states that human nature is positive and that people is inclined to change for the better.
· Cognitive: this perspective, examines mental processes and direct behavior focusing on concepts like language, memory and thinking
· Evolutionary: according to this theory, behavior and mental processes are affected by the forces of evolution and it is based in Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory.
· Biological: this theory states that biological factors like hormones, genes, and the brain affect cognition and behavior.
· Sociocultural: proposed by Lev Vygotsky, who states that when it comes to behavior and cognitive development, social and cultural features (prejudice, segregation, discrimination) have a huge influence on these.
Scientific method.
We call scientific method to the process the scientists use to conduct research; it has five main steps called: develop a question, step that comes from observing an interesting feature in the environment that makes the researcher ask questions about it; the second step is to develop hypothesis or statement that will be confirmed or refuted by the collected data; the third step is design study and collect data and consists in testing the developed hypothesis; the step four is analyzing the data, in this step, all the information is organized, usually with statistical methods, and finally, the step five is simply publishing the results that are going to be used by other researchers to build on it or even improve it by making recommendations.
When collecting the most useful information it is important to choose the correct research design and the type of study, which is why there are some concepts we need to know in order to understand all types of scientific research. For example, variables are all those characteristics that might change with time or across people, having said that, some good examples of variables are temperature, mass, shyness, friendliness, number of people in a family etc. Now, variables can be dependent or independent. When a variable is independent, it means it can be manipulated by the researchers while a dependent variable is what is being measured from the manipulation mentioned above.
The population and sample are two other important concepts, the first one is defined as the “overall group” that the researcher wants to study, then comes the sample, which is a “sub-group”, but there are two ways of choosing a sample; if the researcher chooses a RANDOM SAMPLE, it basically means any member of the population that has the same chance to participate. However, there is the REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE and its members have specific characteristics that reflect the population of interest.

RELATED

What do Marine Biologist do for society - School of Science, Introduction to Enviromental Sustainability - Assignment

1720 words - 7 pages Written Assignment Humans know more about the moon, than we do our own ocean floors. The ocean is an extremely vast area which we have yet to fully discover. But what if all the living beings in the ocean perish before we could ever discover them? Realistically speaking this might not happen due to efforts already being implemented to reduce environmental issues. However, with the sheer number of scientists analyzing the matter, it is baffling

Reviewing the Research Structure - GNED221 - Introduction to Research Design - Assignment

1598 words - 7 pages GNED 221 – Introduction to Research Design Assignment 3: Reviewing the Research Structure of an academic, peer-reviewed[footnoteRef:1] article in The Canadian Geographer [1: ] Full Citation of the chosen article: Northcott, H. C., & Petruik, C. R. (2013). Trends in the residential mobility of seniors in Canada, 1961-2006. Canadian Geographer, 57(1), 43-55. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0064.2012.00449.x Questions (5 pts. each) Answers (in your own words

General Prologue introduction to the Canterbury Tales - BHS,britlit - Assignment

477 words - 2 pages “we should beware of excommunication. 2) Monk. The narrator said that he was a good man to horse. But the Monk is aware that the rule of his monastic order discourages monks from engaging in activities like hunting, but he dismisses such strictures as worthless. I knew Chaucer was satirical when he described him as being fat and rich. 3) Friar. They are supposed to be poor because they live entirely by begging. Yet Chaucer describes him as an

Paper On An Introduction To Barcoding

4782 words - 20 pages ? Different symbologies have been developed to replace or improve existing, inefficient codes. When barcode technology was first developed, Simple Code 2 of 5 could only read up to four digits. Then the number of readable digits increased to 12 with the introduction of the Universal Product Code (UPC). The UPC code was developed to meet the needs of grocery retailing. As the size and cost of computerized technology decreases, more information can be

Assignment On Introduction To Business

4550 words - 19 pages Business plays a major role within our society. It is a creative and competitive activity that continuously contributes to the shaping of our society. By satisfying the needs and wants people cannot satisfy themselves, businesses improve the quality of life for people and create a higher standard of living.It is a way for individuals to provide goods and services to consumers, and at the same time, produce a profit for themselves. Businesses are

Introduction To Linguistics Semantics and Pragmatics - WVU Introduction To Linguistics - Assignment

1146 words - 5 pages Free Austin Martin Homework 3: Semantics & Pragmatics (40 points) Due at the start of class Monday, February 25, 2019 1. Lexical Semantics. In what way are the following pairs of words related (e.g., synonymy)? In cases of hyponymy, indicate which word is the hyponym and which word is the hypernym. (10 points) a. shallow deep They both are related to the depth of something b. mature ripe They are both related to the age of c. table furniture A

Introduction to Puerto Rico assignment - Puerto Rico History - assignment

741 words - 3 pages Historical processes of Puerto Rico INTRODUCTION Welcome! This course is part of the General Education Program. Its objective is to explore the economic, political and social processes of the history of Puerto Rico. It is a course of three academic credits and is a requirement for all high school students. To take this course, you must have availability of a computer and internet connection. In addition, you must have the following knowledge of

An Introduction To Wireless Networks

1917 words - 8 pages An Introduction to Wireless NetworksIntroductionDemand for wireless networks has grown with the development of Mobile hardware, such as mobile phones, laptops and PDA's. With this demand has come industry standards and affordable, lightweight wireless networking hardware. This website will introduce you to the media of in wireless networking, give you an in depth look at Wireless Local area networks (LAN), familiarise you with the Industry

When a man’s stomach is full, it makes no difference whether he is rich or poor - LaTrobe University, Introduction to Psychology - Essay

468 words - 2 pages Happiness is different for everyone. How to achieve it is a lifelong question. For me, happiness is feeling love, satisfaction, pleasure, or joy. Living a meaningful, happy life is about creating, sharing and capturing memories earned through experiences that span a lifetime. The goal of existence is happiness; and we seek to live a life filled with happiness. Experiences become a part of our identity. We are not our possessions, but we are the

Game of Thrones Social Interaction - Introduction to Sociology - Essay

1099 words - 5 pages Free Game of Thrones: Social Class Interaction Sociology 125-5440 The TV show that I have chosen to write my sociological reflection on is Game of Thrones and the interactions between the different social classes within the show. Game of Thrones is a fantasy drama based in fictional continent called Westeros. IT has medieval themes that includes dragons, magic, religion, social clout and mythical creatures. Like all societies, Game of Thrones has

the type of person who would write a virus. Give one example of someone? - Introduction to Cybercrime and Homeland Security - assignment

1458 words - 6 pages Running head: CASE STUDY 2.1 2 CASE STUDY 2.1 Case Study 2.1 Anishbhai Trivedi University of the Potomac Introduction to Cybercrime and Homeland Security 03-20-2019 Dr.David Kimble Describe the type of person who would write a virus. Give one example of someone? Anyone can write a virus - from a kid in his bedroom to the guy who delivers the mail. Virus writers are not a homogenous group. It is not possible to stereotype them and assume that

letter of introduction English class - ccny - assignment

410 words - 2 pages Free Dallas Petit Jean Professor Anna Steegmann English 201002 Hi everyone! My name is Dallas Jean. I am currently pursuing a Bachelor of Art in International Studies. After graduation, I plan to get a master’s in International Relations. I am taking this class not only because it is a requirement, but also to improve my writing in English since it is my second language. I have been living in New York City for five years, and I am originally from the

Performing Vocal Music of the Renaissance - University of Mississippi - Introduction to Music Research (Graduate Level) - Research Paper

2309 words - 10 pages Culpepper 2 Richard Culpepper 8 December 2016 Dr. Thomas Peattie Final Research Paper Performing Vocal Music of the Renaissance Music has existed for thousands of years, if not longer. The earliest musical notation known to date is from a cuneiform tablet created ca. 2000 BC, found in modern day Iraq in the 1960s.[footnoteRef:1] The oldest known musical instruments are even older than that. At an age of ca. 40,000 years old, four carved-bone

auteur theory and its argument - Ashford University ENG225 Introduction to Film - assignment

428 words - 2 pages ) Spike Lee (Director) A director who I would consider an auteur. I would liken Spike Lee who is a director as an auteur. "Auteur" is the French word for author” Goodykoontz, B., & Jacobs, C. P. (2014). The director is the creator of the film who puts his/her individual style and persona to the project. Discuss the arguments against auteur theory and provide examples to support your points. “The auteur theory deems the director as the major

The Essence of Chocolate (brief introduction)

272 words - 2 pages The Essence of ChocolateThe pure indulgence of chocolate has become America's favorite. In the beginning chocolate, which is derived from a cacao bean, was worshipped as an idol by the Mayan Indians over 2,000 years ago. Dating back to the 1500's, the last Aztec emperor, Montezuma II, was consuming a drink called "Cacahuatt". Chocolate was a delicacy that only the rich and important could indulge in, it was treated as a "treasure". After