Biological Molecules And Metabolic Pathways Robert Clack Biological Molecules And Metabolic Pathways

1126 words - 5 pages

Introduction
I am a young scientist who is carrying out a task that has been given to me by my teacher. The task is about biological molecules and metabolic pathways, during this research I have to develop and demonstrate an understanding of this task that I am about to carry out.
Water structure
Firstly, water is a molecule consisting of two light hydrogen atom attached to each 16-fold heavier oxygen atom. Each hydrogen atom has a nucleus with a single positively-charged proton bounded by a 'cloud' of a single negatively-charged electron and the oxygen atom has a nucleus consisting of an eight positively-charged protons and eight uncharged neutrons surrounded by a 'cloud' of a eight negatively-charged electrons. Secondly when forming the molecule, the ten electrons pair up into five, one pair closely associated with the oxygen atom, two pairs associated with the oxygen atom as 'outer' electrons and two pairs forming each of the two identical O-H covalent bonds.
This diagram you can see above is called the eight outer electron outer atom. The OH symbolise covalent bonding and the other two pairs of electrons symbolise lone pair which care called the clouds that surrounds the oxygen nucleus as they repel against each other.
Water is much smaller than almost all other molecules. As a result, both liquid and solid water (ice) have high densities of molecules.
In liquid water, the mean O-H length is about 0.097 nm, the mean H-O-H angle is about 106° and the mean negative charge on the oxygen atom is about 70% of that of an electron with each hydrogen atom positively charged sharing the neutralizing charge. Individual water molecules will have different values for these parameters dependent on their energy and surroundings. The opposite charges on the oxygen and hydrogen atoms causes different water molecules to attract each other. 
This attraction is only strong when the O-H bond from one water molecule points is directly at a nearby oxygen atom in another water molecule, that is, when the three atoms O-H O are in a straight line. This is called 'hydrogen bonding' as the hydrogen atoms appear to hold on to both O atoms. This attraction between neighbouring water molecules, together with the high-density of molecules due to their small size, produces a great cohesive effect within liquid water that is responsible for water's liquid nature at ambient temperatures.
The reason why water is important because it it is a solvent and also our body uses water in all its cell such as organs and tissue to help regulate temperature and maintain our body functions. The reason so is because when we are breath and sweat it loses water that's why it is good to drink water.
Your body uses water in all its cells, organs, and tissues to help regulate its temperature and maintain other bodily functions. Because your body loses water through breathing, sweating, and digestion, it's important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water.           ...

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