Exam 2 Study Guide
1. Define or describe the following terms: phospholipid bilayer, membrane protein, integral proteins, peripheral proteins, transmembrane, glycoproteins, glycolipids, passive transport, active transport, diffusion, equilibrium, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, lysis, cytolysis,
crenation, turgid, flaccid, plasmolysis, channel protein, carrier protein, ion channel, aquaporin, electrogenic pump, membrane potential, cotransport, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
2. What are the functions of the cell membrane?
3. Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure. What are the main components that make up cell membranes?
4. If given an image of the cell membrane, be able to label the different components. On which side of the cell membrane do you find carbohydrate chains? On which side of the cell membrane do you find peripheral proteins?
5. What affects the fluidity of the cell membrane?
6. What are the two types of transport proteins? How do they differ? Describe the different functions of membrane proteins.
7. What does selectively permeable mean? Which substances can easily move across the cell membrane? Which substances do not easily move across the cell membrane?
8. Do molecules stop moving during diffusion once equilibrium is reached?
9. Describe what happens to plant and animal cells in hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. Where is the net flux of water in regards to the cell (i.e. into the cell, out of the cell)? What are the names of the states of plant and animal cells in each type of environment? What type of environment do plant cells prefer? What type of environment do animal cells prefer?
10. What are the main differences between passive and active transport? How are diffusion and facilitated diffusion different? What are some examples of facilitated diffusion?
11. Describe the steps that occur in the sodium-potassium pump. What do electrogenic pumps generate? Why are electrogenic pumps important?
12. What is cotransport?
13. Describe the 3 different kinds of endocytosis.
Match the appropriate term with its description.
A. Diffusion B. Active transport C. Osmosis
D. Phagocytosis E. Passive transport F. Facilitated diffusion
G. Pinocytosis H. Receptor-mediated endocytosis I. Exocytosis
_____ 1) Diffusion across a biological membrane.
_____ 2) Moves solutes against their concentration gradient.
_____ 3) Any spread of molecules from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration.
_____ 4) Diffusion with the help of a transport protein.
_____ 5) Three types of endocytosis.
_____ 6) How cells bring liquid inside.
_____ 7) Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from high to low concentration.
_____ 8) Carrier proteins need ATP to function.
_____ 9) Enables cell to bring inside large quantities of a specific kind of molecule.
_____ 10) How oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and leave cells.
_____ 11) Two types of...