Biology Study Guide Chapters 5-8 - Aacc - Study Guide

1752 words - 8 pages

Exam 2 Study Guide
1. Define or describe the following terms: phospholipid bilayer, membrane protein, integral proteins, peripheral proteins, transmembrane, glycoproteins, glycolipids, passive transport, active transport, diffusion, equilibrium, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, lysis, cytolysis,
crenation, turgid, flaccid, plasmolysis, channel protein, carrier protein, ion channel, aquaporin, electrogenic pump, membrane potential, cotransport, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
2. What are the functions of the cell membrane?
3. Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure. What are the main components that make up cell membranes?
4. If given an image of the cell membrane, be able to label the different components. On which side of the cell membrane do you find carbohydrate chains? On which side of the cell membrane do you find peripheral proteins?
5. What affects the fluidity of the cell membrane?
6. What are the two types of transport proteins? How do they differ? Describe the different functions of membrane proteins.
7. What does selectively permeable mean? Which substances can easily move across the cell membrane? Which substances do not easily move across the cell membrane?
8. Do molecules stop moving during diffusion once equilibrium is reached?
9. Describe what happens to plant and animal cells in hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions. Where is the net flux of water in regards to the cell (i.e. into the cell, out of the cell)? What are the names of the states of plant and animal cells in each type of environment? What type of environment do plant cells prefer? What type of environment do animal cells prefer?
10. What are the main differences between passive and active transport? How are diffusion and facilitated diffusion different? What are some examples of facilitated diffusion?
11. Describe the steps that occur in the sodium-potassium pump. What do electrogenic pumps generate? Why are electrogenic pumps important?
12. What is cotransport?
13. Describe the 3 different kinds of endocytosis.
Match the appropriate term with its description.
A. Diffusion B. Active transport C. Osmosis
D. Phagocytosis E. Passive transport F. Facilitated diffusion
G. Pinocytosis H. Receptor-mediated endocytosis I. Exocytosis
_____ 1) Diffusion across a biological membrane.
_____ 2) Moves solutes against their concentration gradient.
_____ 3) Any spread of molecules from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration.
_____ 4) Diffusion with the help of a transport protein.
_____ 5) Three types of endocytosis.
_____ 6) How cells bring liquid inside.
_____ 7) Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from high to low concentration.
_____ 8) Carrier proteins need ATP to function.
_____ 9) Enables cell to bring inside large quantities of a specific kind of molecule.
_____ 10) How oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and leave cells.
_____ 11) Two types of passive transport.
_____ 12) How cells bring food inside.
_____ 13) Fusion of transport vesicle with membrane and dumping of contents outside of cell.
_____ 14) Helped by aquaporins.
Test your understanding of osmosis by predicting in each of the following cases whether water will enter cell (IN) or leave cell (OUT), or whether there will be no net movement of water (NONE). Assume that the cell membrane is permeable to water but not solutes.
_____ 1) Cell is exposed to hypertonic solution.
_____ 2) Cell is placed in salt solution whose concentration is greater than cell contents.
_____ 3) Due to disease, solute concentration of body fluid outside cell is less than solute
concentration of cells.
_____ 4) Cell is in isotonic solution.
_____ 5) A Paramecium (a single-celled creature) is placed in a drop of pure water for examination
under a microscope.
_____ 6) Solute concentration of cell is greater than solute concentration of surrounding fluid.
_____ 7) Cell is exposed to hypotonic solution.
_____ 8) Concentration of solutes inside cell is equal to concentration of solutes outside of cell.
_____ 9) Cytoplasm is more dilute than surrounding solution.
____ 10) Internal solute concentration of a cell is 45% while the concentration of solute outside of
cell is 75%.
_____ 11) Internal solute concentration of a cell is 80% while the concentration of solute outside
of cell is 20%.
1. Define or describe the following terms: metabolism, metabolic pathway, catabolic pathway, anabolic pathway, energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, chemical energy, thermal energy, heat, entropy, exergonic, endergonic, energy coupling, phosphorylation, enzyme, catalyst, activation energy, substrate, inhibitor, enzyme inhibition, competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, and feedback inhibition.
2. Explain the difference between the two different types of metabolic pathways.
3. What are some of the different forms of energy here on Earth?
4. Does energy flow or cycle on Earth?
5. What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics? What is meant by the term entropy?
6. Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions.
7. Relate the change in Gibbs’ free energy to whether a chemical reaction is endergonic or exergonic. Understand the connection between the change in Gibbs’ free energy and whether a reaction will occur spontaneously or nonspontaneously.
8. How does energy coupling work?
9. Distinguish between ADP and ATP. How are they involved in energetic transformations? What three kinds of work occur in cells due to ATP breakdown?
10. How do enzymes work as catalysts in biological reactions? How do they affect the amount of activation energy needed to start reactions?
11. What does it mean when we say that enzymes are substrate specific?
12. Are enzymes consumed (or used up) during chemical reactions?
13. What are the two types of pathways that enzymes assist with?
14. Describe the induced fit model for how an enzyme interacts with its substrate.
15. How do temperature and pH affect enzyme activity? What does it mean when an enzyme becomes denatured?
16. What are coenzymes?
17. What is enzyme inhibition? Distinguish between competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. What is an allosteric site?
18. What are biochemical pathways? Describe what happens during feedback inhibition. Is feedback inhibition an example of competitive or noncompetitive inhibition?
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
1. Define or describe the following terms:
Oxidation Reduction Electron transport chain
Chemiosmosis ATP synthase Substrate-level phosphorylation
Citrate Oxidative phosphorylation
Fermentation Anaerobic respiration
2. Write out the summary chemical equation of aerobic respiration. What molecules are reduced and what molecules are oxidized?
3. What are the 4 phases of aerobic cellular respiration?
4. Draw and label a mitochondrion showing outer membrane, inner membrane, intermembrane space, cristae and matrix.
5. Describe what happens during glycolysis: where does glycolysis occur? what are the 2 phases that make-up glycolysis? what are the inputs? what are the outputs? how is ATP made?
6. Describe what happens during pyruvate oxidation: where does pyruvate oxidation occur? what are the inputs per glucose molecule? what are the outputs per glucose molecule? is ATP made?
7. Describe the Citric acid cycle: where does the Citric acid cycle occur? what are the inputs per glucose molecule? what are the outputs per glucose molecule? what happens to the carbons of glucose during the Citric acid cycle? how is ATP made?
8. Describe the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis: where do they occur? Explain what happens as electrons move down the electron transport chain. What is meant by the term chemiosmosis? What is the overall process by which ATP is made (hint: ETC + chemiosmosis equals what)? What is the total yield of ATP when one molecule of glucose is fully oxidized?
9. What are the possible pathways that can occur when oxygen is not available in the environment but cells still need to generate ATP? What are the 2 kinds of fermentation that can occur?
10. How does the energy yield of fermentation compare with that of aerobic cellular respiration?
11. Can fats and proteins be broken down during aerobic cellular respiration?
1. Define or describe the following terms:
Oxidation Reduction Electron transport chain
Chemiosmosis RuBP Rubisco Stomata
ATP synthase Photon Electromagnetic energy
Photosystem I Photosystem II Light-harvesting complexes
Primary electron acceptor Chlorophyll
Pigment molecules Reaction center NADP reductase
2. Write out the summary chemical equation for photosynthesis. What is reduced? oxidized?
3. Where does photosynthesis occur in the cell?
4. Where does the carbon dioxide and water used in photosynthesis come from?
5. Sketch and label a diagram of a chloroplast showing outer membrane, inner membrane, thylakoids, grana and stroma.
6. Distinguish between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
7. Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions occur? Where in the chloroplast does the Calvin cycle occur?
8. What are the 2 products of the light reactions that are used in the Calvin cycle?
9. Describe what happens during the light reactions of photosynthesis by tracing the movement of electrons from water to NADPH.
10. Describe how ATP is made during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
11. Which colors of light are used during the photosynthetic process?
12. What compound in the Calvin cycle is regenerated each time the cycle is completed?
13. What is the key product of the Calvin cycle?
14. Summarize the Calvin cycle: what goes in, what comes out, what is consumed, what is regenerated?
15. How many turns of the Calvin cycle have to occur to make 1 molecule of G3P?
16. What happens to the G3P made within the chloroplast of a plant cell?
Label the diagram below summarizing the two important reactions of photosynthesis. Use the following terms to fill in the blanks.
Match the ingredients or products of photosynthesis with the appropriate phrases.
A. CO2 B. H2O C. C6H12O6 D. O2
I. Light
______ 1) Oxidized in the light reactions.
______ 2) Reduced in the Calvin cycle.
______ 3) Carries H and electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle.
______ 4) Food produced by photosynthesis.
______ 5) Source of H and electrons that end up in glucose.
______ 6) Source of O atoms that end up in glucose.
______ 7) Where O atoms from water end up.
______ 8) Oxidized in the Calvin cycle.
______ 9) Reduced in the light reactions.
______ 10) Supplies energy to the Calvin cycle.
______ 11) Where C and O atoms in carbon dioxide end up.
______ 12) Recycled from the Calvin cycle to make ATP.
______ 13) Supplies energy to the light reactions.
______ 14) Gas produced by reactions in the thylakoids.
______ 15) Gas consumed by reactions in the stroma.
______ 16) Source of C for carbon fixation.
______ 17) Source of H for the Calvin cycle.
______ 18) Picks up energized electrons from reactions in thylakoids.

More like Biology Study Guide Chapters 5-8 - Aacc - Study Guide

Study Guide Essay

520 words - 3 pages ... 1. Worksheet Chapter 10 "Prayer"-We will go over questions you need to know. 2. Study Guide-Google Classroom Study Guide-Unit 1 1. What are some false notions of God? a. Payback/Angry b. Domineering/Terrifying c. Stoic/Disgusted 2. Who is God according to Jesus? a He uses the name "Abba," a caring and compassionate Father. b He reveals God as a merciful Father in the Parable of the Prodigal son. 3. What does Jesus teach us about ...

Origin Of Life Study Guide: About How Did The Earth And Early Life Formed - Biology - Essay

1025 words - 5 pages Free ... and rigid with gasses · Earth then cools down · Water collects on Earth surface · Forms a “dilute soup” · Water with consumable things in it · 5-10% is organic · Becomes more smooth · Dilute soup is still forming · Aggregation · Molecules are in a clump · These are called aggregates · 2 types · Both are Prebions · Coacervates · Proteins + carbon · Microsphere · Proteins · Prebionts are not living Living organism- physical entity that utilizes ...

Mental Health Study Guide Essay

1456 words - 6 pages ... Mental Health Study Guide Personality Disorders: 1. What is the difference between Clusters A, B, & C? Cluster A: Odd, Eccentric Behaviors Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, Erratic Behaviors Cluster C: Anxious, Fearful Behaviors 1. Paranoid Personality Disorder 1. Antisocial Personality Disorder 1. Avoidant Personality Disorder 2. Schizoid Personality Disorder 2. Borderline Personality Disorder 2. Dependent Personality Disorder ...

Final Exam Study Guide - Exam Guide

2345 words - 10 pages ... lower exam grades because they have not read and followed the directions. This guide provides you with the exam format so that you'll know what to expect on the test and can prepare accordingly. If you have any questions, please ask immediately. The exam is cumulative and will have two parts. Part I will be identifications, and Part II will be an essay question. PART I: Identifications (50 points) The instructions will read: Choose FIVE of ...

Cold War Study Guide With Answers - World History - Study Guide

633 words - 3 pages ... Cold War Study Guide 1. Why did many European colonies gain independence after WW2? ​Because the British empire had gone bankrupt. 2. What types of protest did Gandhi preach?​ Non violent protest for equality. 3. What is civil disobedience? ​Refusal to Obey unjust laws. 4. Describe the Amritsar massacre. ​Not on test. 5. What two nations were formed after India gained its independence? ​India and Pakistan 6. How did Gandhi’s actions affect the ...

Statistics Study Guide Math 115 - Math 115 - Study Guide

3415 words - 14 pages ... . 12) Experiment 13) Observational study 14) Random 15) No; no; The frequencies do not increase, reach a maximum, and then decrease. 16) Hours Frequency 3-4 3 5-6 13 7-8 7 9-10 1 17) Income ($) Relative Frequency 200-300 19.93% 301-400 25.36% 401-500 26.45% 501-600 24.64% More than 600 3.62% 22 Answer Key Testname: MATH 115 CH1-CH4 REVIEW TRIOLA 13TH SPRING 2018 18) The distribution does not appear to be normal. It is not bell-shaped and it is ...

The Glass Castle Study Guide

3230 words - 13 pages ... Study guide: The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls I. "A Woman on the Street" pgs. 3-5 1. Who is the "woman on the street" after whom the section is named? 2. What does the narrator see out of the window of a taxi when she is on her way to a party? 3. When the narrator returns to her apartment after seeing the "woman on the street", how does she feel when she looks around her apartment and sees all her beautiful things? Why does she ...

General Psychology Study Guide - Southern - Study

1965 words - 8 pages ... STUDY GUIDE for EXAM #5 (FINAL EXAM) General Psychology 210 – Dr. Richard Flicker – Spring 2019 Exam 5 (The Final) will cover two chapters: Chapter 14 (Psychological Disorders) and Chapter 15 (Treatment of Psychological Disorders). It will NOT cover Chapter 3 (Biology/Neuroscience) despite what is indicated on the syllabus. Just chapters 14 and 15. Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders (62 Questions) Many of the questions from this chapter ...

Unit 6 Guide. Helpful For Religion Class - Rleigion - Study Guide

1607 words - 7 pages ... Unit 6: Liturgy and Prayer Study Guide There will be 50 multiple choice and matching questions and 6 short answer/essay questions. The exam will be worth a total of 125 points. Terms ritual: In a religion, a ritual is a repetitive action, behavior or rite that is performed in order to call to mind, express and connect one to a deep intellectual and religious belief about reality. Religious rituals are always tied to beliefs and truths that they ...

Dr Jekyll And Hyde Study Guide

688 words - 3 pages ... Jekyll and HYDE Study Guide: Test The test will be in two parts: 20 Questions relating to the text, themes, and structure of the novel A mini-essay on the following question: How does Stevenson explore the duality of human nature in the novel, Jekyll and Hyde? You will be allowed to bring an outline (which can include possible quotations you might want to use) into the text with you, and we will review the structure and possible ideas for ...

The Americas Unit 2 Study Guide - Lynbrook U.S. History - Study Guide

3054 words - 13 pages ... Unit 2 Study Guide  What was Reconstruction and to what extent was it a success and failure (1863-1877)?  I. Reconstruction  A. The period during which the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War  B. Process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states  II. Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan  A. South would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to  the Union  B. Angered Radical ...


658 words - 3 pages ... Study Guide 1 Roger Williams:  an English Protestant theologian who was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. He began the colony of Providence Plantation, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams started the first Baptist church in America, the First Baptist Church of Providence. in October 1635 he was tried by the General Court and convicted of sedition and heresy. The Court declared ...

Latin 1 Study Guide For Beginning Latin - 9th Grade - Outline

5704 words - 23 pages ... LATIN I STUDY GUIDE By: Lily Zheng, ​Ludmilla Pajo​ ​only a little bit and, ​Jennifer Shim a smaller bit   First Declension: -Recognized by the​ -ae​ ending of the genitive singular (ex- Puellae) Feminine Singular Plural Nominative Puell​a​ (A girl/The girl) Puell​ae​ (The girls) Genitive Puell​ae​ (Of the girl) Puell​arum​ (Of the girls) Dative Puell​ae​ (To/For the girl) Puell​is​ (To/For the girls) Accusative Puell​am​ (A girl/ The girl ...

This Is A Midterm Study Guide For Bible Class - Biola/bbst - Studyguide

448 words - 2 pages Free ... Theology II – Midterm Exam Study Guide This list is meant to focus your studying. It may seem overwhelming, but just take your time to re-learn these concepts. I am definitely not seeking to make things difficult, but to test your basic knowledge and understanding of the course material. You will be tested on material from the lectures, although some questions will draw from your readings (these are indicated below in bold). The test will be ...

Nursing 615 Assignment 3.1 Study Guide Worksheet - Maryville University Nurs 615 - Assignment 3.1

538 words - 3 pages Free ... arrhythmias, BP, and reflex orthostatic tachycardia. 7. What are the adverse effects of beta blockers? 1. Bradycardia 2. CHF with pulmonary edema 3. Hypotention 4. Fatigue, Weakness, drowsiness 5. Blood glucose alterations 6. Anxiety, depression, insomnia, nightmares 7. Bronchospasm, dyspnea 8. Dry Mouth 9. Muscle and joint pain 10. Pruritic rashes 11. Facial swelling 8. What effect will result with rapid withdrawal of a beta blocker? Possible: 1 ...