C228 Task 2
A. Communicable Disease
The last measles outbreak in the USA occurred in December, 2014- January 2015 where millions of people seek entertainment 360 days of the year. The area of exposure occurred at a Disneyland theme park located in Anaheim, CA. Prior to this outbreak, this disease had since been dormant in the USA since approximately 2000, but continues to be a potential risk do to people who are unvaccinated and travel outside of the United States or come into the United States as illegal immigrants. These individuals are considered to be susceptible to most contagious diseases.
B. Description of Outbreak
California Health Department reported the first case of the outbreak which involved an unvaccinated 11-year-old child who had developed a rash shortly after visiting the well-known theme park in CA. He had been hospitalized for suspicion of measles in January 2015. Days later, reports of 6 more cases suspected of measles, of the 6 individuals, 2 of these being from Utah. After a thorough investigation by the State Department of Health, it was determined these individuals with suspected measles had visited Disneyland in California. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) was notified of this as potential measles outbreak.
On January 7th of 2015, test results confirmed the individuals who developed a rash were in deed the contagious measles disease. All of the U.S. was put on high alert via news media and informed of the potential risk to unvaccinated individuals. After further testing by Federal level laboratories and over 2000 specimens tested it was determined the strain to be a measles genotype B3, (Zipprich et al., 2015). Of the 2000 specimens, 73 infected individuals tested positive for this strain. This outbreak strain had been traced to the Philippines (CDC, Measles Cases and Outbreaks).
By February 11, 2015, it was reported that hundred and twenty-five total cases were confirmed in the US. Of the hundred and twenty-five cases all complained a high fever, runny nose, cough and red eyes, followed by a red rash all over. Most symptoms were reported within 7-14 days from exposure dates. Of the hundred and ten cases it was determined they were from California with thirty-nine of them reporting going to Disneyland in December 2014. This was the timeframe of assumption they were exposed to measles. Although, thirty-seven cases could not be linked and were considered exposures of unknown source and thirty-four developed the disease secondary post vaccination. Twenty-six of these cases were identified to have lived close to or with someone diagnosed with the measles. Luckily, only eight people were exposed within the community and had denied going to Disneyland during the incubation period. The CDC reported fifteen more cases who lived outside of California residency and had been to Disneyland in December were also associated to this outbreak. Of these cases, residents
from Arizona, Colora...