C228 Task 2 Community Outbreak Zika - Community Outbreak Paper

987 words - 4 pages

Community Health and Population Focused Nursing
Task 2

Description of Chosen International Disease Outbreak
I chose the international disease known as Zika virus. The Zika virus is a communicable
disease transmitted primarily when an infected Aedes mosquito bites a human. (World Health
Organization, 2018). With mode of transmission being a mosquito, the Zika virus has crossed
international borders. According to WHO, to date, 86 countries and territories have reported
infection from mosquito transmitted Zika virus. (World Health Organization, 2018).
The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in monkeys in Uganda then later identified in
humans in 1952 in both Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. (World Health
Organization, 2018). The first reported major outbreak of Zika virus was in the Island of Yap in
2007 and then again in 2013 in French Polynesia and other countries and territories in the
Pacific. By 2015 Zika was reported in Brazil and Mexico and in 2016 Asia. By 2015 Zika virus
had reached the United States. Between 2015-2016 there were 236 confirmed cases of Zika virus
reported in the United States. (World Health Organization, 2018).
Epidemiological Determinants and Risks Factors

Epidemiological determinants for the Zika virus mainly depend on the mosquitos
environment. According to the CDC the mosquitos breed in standing water, typically domestic
water-holding containers. They favor warmer weather or more tropical climates. They are mainly
day-time biters and are aggressive feeding indoors or outdoors. (Centers for Disease Control,
2019). Most people who are exposed to the Zika virus and infected dont show any signs of the
virus. (CDC, 2019). People who do shows signs will show signs after the incubation period of
3-14 days. (WHO, 2018). For most people signs are mild and include fever, rash, joint pain, and
heachache. These symptoms typically only last 2-7 days. (WHO, 2018). Pregnant woman are at
highest risk for developing adverse reactions to Zika virus. Infection during pregnancy can lead
to microcephaly in the developing fetus, congenital abnormalities, still birth, fetal loss, or
preterm birth. (WHO, 2018). The most common risk factor is being bitten by an infected
mosquito, however having unprotected sex with an infected partner is also a risk factor for
contracting the virus. (CDC, 2019).
Route of Transmission
Zika virus is carried by infected Aedes mosquitos, therefore the route of transmission is
through the bite from these mosquitos infected with the Zika virus. A mosquito will bite a person
already infected with Zika virus causing the mosquito to become infected. Once the mosquito is
infected it will bite another person infecting that person and this is how some many people get
infected so fast. (CDC, 2019). Also, once a person has been infected with the Zika virus they
can spread the virus through blood transfusion, mother to child, or during unprotected sex.
(CDC, 2019...

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