Deductive Argument And Reasoning Miami Dade College Ethics Essay

1510 words - 7 pages

Section A – Question 2 A deductive argument is an argument whose statements are known to be true or deductively valid. It intends to give a case a conclusive logic. The conclusion of a deductive argument must come after the premise. If the premise is true, then the conclusion can’t be false. When a deductive argument is well made, has the right form, and the premises back the conclusion, then the argument can be what we call valid, as in, it has solid reasoning in a deductive manner. Just because arguments are valid, doesn’t mean the premises are true. It’s when you have both valid and true premises that your argument would be sound. And there are also inductive arguments. An inductive argument is arguments that the arguer intends to be strong enough that if the premises you present are true, then it would most likely be unlikely the conclusion would be a false one. In other words, inductive arguments only attempt to give arguers plausible support for their conclusions. Unlike deductive arguments, inductive arguments could only tell you if the premises are true, then the conclusions are presumably true. When the conclusion to an inductive argument is possibly true, it’s called a strong argument. When inductive arguments that are strong have premises which are true, it is, therefore, a cogent argument. Modus ponens is Latin for mode that affirms or mode that affirms by affirming. Modus ponens is a valid form of argument. P suggests Q and P are stated to be true; thus Q must be true. If in every case this method is followed, the arguments would always be valid. There is also modus tollens. Modus tollens is Latin for mode that denies or mode that denies by denying. Modus tollens is another valid form of argument. P implies Q and the contradictory of Q to the contradictory of P (if P, then Q - not P, not Q). For both modus ponens and modus tollens, once the validity has been wrapped up, and you notice the premises are true in our world, then it becomes sound. Bad reasonings that do not include the form being bad is called fallacies. One example of a fallacy would be the straw man fallacy. The straw man fallacy is a form of argument when someone substitutes a person’s position or argument with a distorted or misrepresented version. A good example would be if let’s say, Stan, were to ask if Tim believed in God. Then, Tim replies that he doesn’t believe in God or any gods for that matter. Then Stan replies, “So you think some accident created us? That we originate from monkeys?” Another fallacy would be ad hominem fallacy. In the ad hominem fallacy, when a person is making an argument about something, the other person attacks the person who is making said argument personally, instead of attacking the argument itself, making the attack irrelevant to the actual argument in question. For example, let’s say that Peter wants people to believe that there wasn’t a God or gods for that matter and that we originated from primates. Then Joe replies that...

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