1. Material culture = Shirt, axe, kayak, blanket, photograph, house.
Non material culture = Swear word, prayer, dance, leaders speech.
2. Two aspects of material culture are snowshoes, and birchbark containers.
Two aspects of non material culture are moon ceremonies, and vision quests.
3. Nomadic nations include; Inuit, Dakota, Siksika, Cree, Naskapi and Innu.
Sedentary nations include; Haida, Nisga’a, Iroquois, Nuu-Chah-Nulth and Salish.
4a. It is difficult for archaeologists to figure out when people first came to North America
because they are relying on things left behind like artwork and bones as well as theories that
have been made over time.
B. The Multi-wave migration theory suggests that different people from diverse places came
at random and various times.
The coastal migration theory suggests that people from Asia sailed from west or east coast
of the Americas.
5. Three examples out of the story that makes in clear that this story takes place in ontario is
that they reference places that are l over Ontario. Gatineau valley, Ottawa river, and Lake
6. The aboriginal nation that lived where i live today would be the Huron nation.
7a. Two advantages that europeans gained from their contact with aboriginals are the use of
birch bark canoes so they were able to explore more inland. Another advantage is that they
were able to trade furs and pelts which helped them withstand colder temperatures.
B. Two advantages that the aboriginal people received by trading with the europeans were
the use of guns, to make it easier to hunt. Aboriginals also gained access to knives and
8. The quote “A single twig breaks, but the bundle of twigs is strong" relates to the idea of
collective identity by showing that a community is stronger together even if one is broken, or
out of place. Rather than being alone.
9. So many different terms were used for the first people because the europeans gave them
a new name each time they first encountered them.
10. Indian = c
Metis = a
Inuit = d
Non registered indian = b
11. Pauline Johnson reacts by asking her the same question regarding her race to imply that
was a silly question. She reacted this way because you can't simply go by looks alone to
assume someone's race or culture.
12. Language and culture are connected because languages give you a good idea of how a
culture sees the world, and how they reflect their relationships to the environment
environment and community.
13. Landmark, landscape feature: Manitobia, Assiniboine, “Lake of prairie”
Animal = Kelowna, Salish, “Grizzly bear"
Person/people = Nahanni, Athabaskan, “People of the west"
14. I think it was important for aboriginal place names to be detailed because it gave others
a general idea or description of the area or thing.
15. James Evans syllabic symbol spread quickly because it gave the tribes and communities
ways to communicate through art, and non verbally.
16. One advantage that written tradition has provided for aboriginal cultures are...