First off, an enzyme is a substance, which is usually protein, produced by a living
organism that acts as stimulant to bring about life sustaining reactions, usually biochemical.
Every single creature has several enzymes at work. The types of enzymes I will be researching
and talking about are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases.
Oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation and reduction reactions. These reactions transfer
electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to the next (the oxidant). These reactions are
absolutely vital to life for their role in metabolic processes like glycolysis, which occurs in
almost every organism on the planet. Without this kind of enzyme plants and animals could not
The transferase enzymes catalyze the transfer of a functional group (such as methyl) from
one molecule to a different molecule. The first molecule is called the donor and the second
molecule is called the acceptor. These transfer processes are some of the most vital and basic
reactions needed in life. Once again, without this enzyme, life would not exist.
The hydrolases cause hydrolysis: this is the breaking of chemical bonds with the addition
water. There is a large variety of identified hydrolases, even over 200 of them, from those that
bring down proteins to the kind that cleave ester bonds and even more. Exohydrolase enzymes
cut the molecules at the end of the chain, and endohydrolase enzymes do so in the middle of the
chain. This enzyme is very important and without it, many bodily functions would not work.
Lysis reactions, those that generate a double bond, are caused by lyase enzymes. Lysis
reactions are the kind of elimination reactions that are not hydrolytic or oxidative. The lyases are
sometimes called synthase enzymes. A Michael addition, the reverse reaction is possible as well.
However, two substrates are needed for the reverse reaction to happen, whereas one substrate is
needed for the lysis reaction. This makes lyases unique among...