The Great Peloponnesian War began in 431 B.C., it was between the Athenian Empire and
Sparta. They had very different societies, in which neither state could tolerate the other’s
establishment. Sparta began to fear the growth of the Athenian Empire which eventually led up
to the start of the Great Peloponnesian War.
There were a series of disputes that lasted until 404 B.C. Yet the main reason for this long war
was Athenian control of the Delian League. Though it all ended in 405 B.C. when the Athenian’s
navy fleet fell at Aegospotami on the Hellespont. Soon after that Athens submitted. The
Athenian Empire was ended, thus ending the Great Peloponnesian War.
Alexander the Great was the son of Philip II and the next heir to the throne of Macedonia.
Alexander’s father made sure that his son was prepared for kingship. He did this by taking
Alexander on military campaigns, and taught him the basics of military leadership. Before Philip
was able to invade Asia as he had planned, he was assassinated, thus leaving the duty to his son
Alexander. At the young age of 20, Alexander became the new King of Macedonia.
Alexander moved with a purpose to fulfill his father's wish, the invasion of the Persian Empire.
In 334 B.C. he entered Asia Minor with 37,000 men, some Macedonians and Greeks. The next
year he freed the Ionian Greek cities of western Asia Minor and defeated one of the Persian’s
large armies at Issus. In 331 B.C. Alexander traveled east and fought the Persians at Gaugamela,
thus winning the control of the entire Persian Empire. He died in 323 B.C. of exhaustion, fever,
and too much alcohol. He was only 32.
Rome’s location made it very successful because they learned how to adapt to the
geography of the land. Rome was surrounded by two mountain ranges, the Alps and the
Apennines, the mountains helped protect them against invasion. With the Alps to the north and
the Apennines to the south the only way Rome could be reached was by forcing the attackers to
travel slowly through slim passes, give Rome enough of a heads up to respond.
Rome also had a very good trade system, they traveled by land and sea. Most of Rome’s
trade routes were on the Mediterranean Sea. Roman’s mostly used boats as the transportation of
goods and other items of...