Suspect Interviews Flashcards For Final Year Psychology - Psychology - Psychology Flashcards

505 words - 3 pages

What is a confession?
Defined as a criminal suspects oral or written acknowledgement of guilt, including details about the crime
- To avoid further interrogation
- avoid physical harm
- strike a deal with the interrogator that brings some sort of reward
= they naivily believe the truth will some point come out
What makes someone make a coerced-internalized false confession?
Vulnerability of the suspect such as:
· Low intelligence
· Alcohol or drug abuse
· Stress
· Age
· False evidence
= self-doubt
What did kassin find about coerced-internalized false confession cases?
Kassin (1997) identified two factors all cases have in common
· The suspects memories is vulnerable in some way
(due to: low intelligence, or youth, fatigue, substance use)= creates self-doubt
· The suspect is confronted with false evidence
WHAT DID: Davies & Beech, 2017 find?
· Interviewees with intellectual disabilities (ID):
· Interviewees with intellectual disabilities (ID):
· More compliant/suggestible
· Recall fewer details to open-ended questions (but still accurate)
· More likely to change responses to repeated questions
WHAT DID: Davies & Beech, 2017 find?
· Interviewees with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
· Focus on peripheral details
· Children with ASD may recall fewer event details
· Adults with ASD may be less accurate in recalling details about people and actions…
· … but may generally be as accurate and suggestible
Individual variables associated with false confessions?
· Younger age
· Low intelligence
· Mental disturbance
· Sleep disturbance
· Alcohol and drug intoxication/withdrawal
· Personality
What did gudjohnsson et al (2004) find in relation to individual factors associated with false confessions?
Antisocial personality characteristics can cause false confessions
Ofshe (1989) coerced-internalised false confession?
Identified 4 tactics used my all researchs to provoke a false confession
1- Repeated displays of the certainty of the interviewees guilt
2- Isolation from info and social supports that differ from the interrogators position
3- Lengthy interrogation
4- Collective development by the police and the interviewee of an ad hoc explanation to why the suspect does not remember the crime
Ofshe & Leo (1997) found?
Some people are more likely to confess because they have been temporarily persuaded by the interrogation tactics
Horselenberg et al (2006): FOUND /
high false confession rates when false evidence is presented by authority figure
Candel et al (2005): FOUND?
36% of children falsely confessed
89% internalized responsibility
Mimization technique?
Involves a gentle, friendly approach to gain suspects trust and minimize the seriousness of the offence
Eg: stressing the importance of cooperation’s
Expressing sympathy
Providing excuses
Maximization technique?
Involves the use of harsher techniques or ‘scare’ techniques
Eg: absolute certainty in suspects guilt, shutting down denials
- exaggerating the seriousness of the offence
- lying about evidence
How can false confessions be reduced?
· Not presenting false evidence
Wha did davis & ‘donohue find?
Effects of stress?
Found: the interrogative stresses also contribute towards the tendency to confess falsely through their impact on the self-regulation abilities of the target

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