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Myositis means inflammation of the muscles that you use to move your body. An injury, infection, or autoimmune disease can cause it.
Signs and Symptoms
· Muscle weakness, sometimes with muscle pain
· General tiredness and fatigue
· Trouble climbing stairs, standing from a seated position, or reaching up
· Difficulty swallowing or breathing
· Rash on knuckles, chest, face and back
· Persistent dry cough
A doctor may suspect myositis based on a person’s symptoms of muscle weakness or other evidence of myositis. Tests for myositis include:
· Blood tests
· MRI scan: an MRI scan can help identify areas of myositis and changes in the muscles over time
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spinal cord. When the lower motor neurons are affected, signs are muscle twitching, muscle cramps, weakness, and muscle wasting. Other symptoms are weakness in the hands, arms, feet, and a decreased ability to breathe comfortably (Lester).Though there is no known cure for ALS, there are many treatments and different drugs being tested. About thirty years ago, modified snake venom was proposed as a treatment for ALS. Many patients were treated because the scientists involved believed that the drug worked, though there was no proof that whether the drug was actually effective. Eventually, scientists discovered that the venom was no more effective than placebo control. Creatine has a positive
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and aiding in metabolite removal after exercise and thus reducing swelling and muscle soreness (Bleakley & Davidson, 2009).
Exercise induced muscle damage commonly occurs after a strenuous eccentric exercise and consists of aching pain, stiffness, and tenderness. As well as loss of muscle strength. The symptoms involved with eccentric exercise usually start within the first 24 hours of post-exercise, and commonly peak between 24 an 72 hours and can take up to 5-7 days to subside fully (Eston & Peters, 1999). Eccentric exercise places high stress on the muscle tissue involved which is the most likely cause of muscle damage. Additional symptoms of post-exercise muscle damage are swelling
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, professional sports regulators continue to discourage Steroid use within professional leagues.Steroid use by professional athletes as adults can help increase muscle growth after a severe injury, enabling an athlete to continue to play. For instance, a profess-sional athlete might have an anterior crucaite ligament tear for which cortisone shots would help mobility of the joint, enabling the athlete to recovery with full use of the appendage. Steroids help in stabilizing or increasing muscle mass to compensate for ligament tears. Steroids such as cortisone shots should not be taken on a regular basis; however, in moderation cortisone shots can be taken safely. Adult athletes who receive
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(cant feel things anymore) in the skin and muscle weakness.Leprosy is common in many countries in the world, and in temperate, tropical, and subtropical climates. Approximately 100 cases per year are diagnosed in the U.S. Most cases are limited to the South, California, Hawaii, and U.S. island possessions. Prevention of this disease is just not to come into close physical contact with the infected person. Symptoms to diagnose this disease include the following: discoloration of your skin, decreased sensitivity in and around the infected are to heat and so on, numbness in the hands ands and feet, and muscle weakness.An early diagnosis of this disease is very important. The reason for this is
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associated with which. Physiology is the study of the functions of these
Crowther’s Tenth Martini, Chapter 1 Winter 2015
Anatomy and physiology – often abbreviated A&P – can be approached separately but usually
are presented together because structure and function are so closely interconnected. It is often
said that “form follows function”; in other words, the specific structure of a given molecule, cell,
organ, or organ system must suit its specific function(s).
As an example, consider the structural differences between skeletal muscle cells and cardiac
(heart) muscle cells. The job of both types of cells is to contract, so they both contain lots of the
proteins that make
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Exercise and AgingExercise is the activity that results in contraction of skeletal muscle. The term is usually used in reference to any activity that promotes physical fitness (Encarta, exercise). Aging is inevitable, but exercise can help you live a longer healthier life.The first group of people to utilize the benefits of exercise was the Greeks. Aristotle was a famous philosopher of the time, who brought this concept to the people at the time. In 1523, the Spanish explorer and conquistador Ponce de Leon went searching for the legendary Fountain of Youth. He discovered Florida. The idea of mythical youth is still very much alive in our culture because we desire to look youthful and we
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c) Common physical signs of Down Syndrome include the following:
· Decreased or poor muscle tone
· Short neck, with excess skin at the back of the neck
· Flattened facial profile and nose
· Small head, ears, and mouth
· Upward slanting eyes, often with a skin fold that comes out from the upper eyelid and covers the inner corner of the eye
· White spots on the colored part of the eye (called Brushfield spots)
· Wide, short hands with short fingers
· A single, deep, crease across the palm of the hand
· A deep groove between the first and second toes
d) Downs Syndrome is normally diagnosed in a couple ways.
Screening tests include an ultrasound or a blood test whilst you're in your
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Cardiovascular SystemStructure lies within thorax b/w lungs in the mediastinal space beating is palpable @ 5th intercostals space, approx 2 in. left of midline this pulsation (arising at the apex of the heart) is termed point of maximal impulse. Endocardium = thin, inner lining/layer Myocardium = layer of muscle Epicardium = fibrous, outer layer Heart is surrounded by the pericardiumo Inner (visceral) layer is in contact with the epicardiumo Outer (parietal) layer is connected with the mediastinum Pericardial fluid lubricates the space b/w the pericardial layers and prevents friction. Heart is divided vertically
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endurance became available in the United States (Phillips 50).Creatine is used as a kind of energy source in our bodies. Although the human body produces creatine and it is found in many foods that we eat, many athletes still feel the desire for this supplement. The biggest reason for this may be that animal muscle seems to be the richest source of creatine, to get the type of results that one can get from using a supplement of creatine, a diet would have to consist of ten pounds of raw steak a day for five days (Phillips).To understand why supplementing creatine may improve strength and ability then it is important to understand the role it plays in the body. Creatine exists in two forms
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. Increased heart rate
2. Increased circulatory volume
1. Hypoalbuminemia due to dilution
3. Increased plasma lipid levels
1. Impacts transport/distribution of drugs
4. Impact on fetus
1. Non-lipophilic drugs enter fetal circulation
2. Potential for medications to enter breastmilk
4. Which medications interact with St. John’s Wort?
1. Warfarin, antidepressants, antiretrovirals, CNS depressants, analgesics, phenytoin
5. How does doxazosin work?
1. Doxazosin relaxes the smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls, thereby causing vessels to dilate, lowering blood pressure.
6. What is the action and effect of beta blockers?
1. They occupy beta-receptor sites and prevent catecholamines and other beta agonists
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tissues to help cure some diseases such as: diabetes, osteo and rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.Scientists are hoping to cure weak dying hearts by transplanting healthy heart muscle cells made from human pluripotent stem cells. Scientific studies worked on mice and other animals have shown positive outcomes with the healthy heart muscle cells being transplanted into the heart. The heart tissues work with the host cells and prove that muscle stem cell transplantation is possible.Individuals with diabetes contain islet cells that have become interrupted. Islet cells are the cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. Normally these diabetics have to
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steroid which is considered to be the most dangerous is the Anabolic Steroid. Anabolic Steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to the male sex hormone. Current legitimate medical uses include: treatment of certain kinds of anemia, and buns. The most common use however, is among bodybuilders, long-distance runners, cyclists, and various other athletes who claim it gives them a competitive advantage to improve their physical appearance. The steroids are said to stimulate a build up of the body by synthesizing protein for muscle growth and tissue repair. Steroids have become a major problem with people in the sports fields. Some National Football League players estimate that
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is just that; a build up in the electron transport chain. "The body has a limited store of about 85g of ATP and would use it up very fast if we were unable to resynthesis. As we exercise pyruvate is formed. When insufficient oxygen is available to breakdown the pyruvate then lactate is produced. Lactate enters the surrounding muscle cells, tissue and blood. The muscle cells and tissues receiving the lactate either breakdown the lactate to fuel (ATP) for immediate use or use it in the creation of glycogen. The glycogen then remains in the cells until energy is required. 65% of lactic acid is converted to carbon dioxide and water, 20% into glycogen, 10% into protein and 5% into glucose
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There is a certain place in your heart that feels the pangs of envy as a restored classic car rolls byyou. In the south, where I'm from, muscle cars and trucks dominate the roads, all in variousstages of restoration, from the sparkle of the custom paint, the gleam of the polished chrome,to the hearty rumble of the exhaust. Many years of blood, sweat, tears, and thousands of dollarsgo into a car to bring it back to the original state that it was in when it first came off theproduction line. When I bought my project truck, I didn't see a beat up, rusted pick up, instead Isaw visions of trophies, and ribbons, magazine covers, and a really nice ride. In all actuality, Iknow that my truck will
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functions.Cerebral dominance is a misnomer because one or the other cerebral hemisphere dominates each task. Cerebral dominance designates the hemisphere responsible for language, this doesn't mean it's the dominate side for all tasks.3. A plexus is an interlacing network of nerve fibers. Because of the number fo plexuses, damage to one spinal segment or root will not completely paralyze any limb muscle.4. The white rami are only found in T1-L2 spinal cord segments, gray rami are associated with every chain ganglion from the cervical spine to the sacral region. White rami are are myelinated and the gray are not. White rami carry preganglionic fibers. Grey rami have postganglionic fibers.
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the rib cage
A joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending
Portions of the nervous system that , when simulated, can cause an increase in the force of contraction of the heart, an increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation
The large muscle that covers the front of the humerus
The ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine
The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them
The major vessel in the upper extremities that supplies blood to the arm
The controlling organ of the body and the center of consciousness; functions include perception, control of reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and
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, you will be kicked out of ketosis which is what we don’t want! It is very
important to choose high-fat meals with low protein. You only want about 20% of your calories
to come from protein. No more and no less. Generally speaking, protein is the most important
macro for sure. It is a macro heavily associated with muscle growth due to the amino acids it
contains. Put it this way. If you have a high protein consumption on a keto diet, it is basically
the same effect as eating too much carbs.
The greatest thing about keto is that you will not be losing any muscle due to the lower protein
you are now consuming and this is because ketones are protein sparing. This means that when
your body is in
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to play a large role in one ability to build muscle but only to a certain extent… On the other hand, the false fallacy that all these Hollywood superstars insane work ethic is the reason they’re so built is entirely false muscle gain is not linear and you will always end up at your genetic potential. Dwayne Johnson for example can often be seen in his ‘Iron paradise’ at 11pm training until 1am and waking up at 5am is CERTAINLLY not the reason he weighs 118kg lean, as we know from the introductory paragraph, sleep is the primary factor of which induces the release of HGH and aids recovery, however when you’re the rock you already intake HGH from injection and have the testosterone levels 5x
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Volume (not in formula; assumed to be constant)
- But not if your bleeding
● Radius of tube (r)
- Small changes in radius change resistance dramatically
- Immediate with autonomic nervous system
● Changing resistance changes:
Arterial Blood Flow and Pressure
● Arterial blood flow:
- Amt/min coming out of LV
- Also called cardiac output (CO)
● In respiratory system:
- Amt/time = amt/breath X breaths/min
● In cardiovascular system:
- Amt/time = amt/beat X beats/min
● CO = amt/time
● Heart rate (HR) = beats/min
● Stroke volume (SV) = amt/be
Venous Blood Flow
● Venous flow mostly due to skeletal muscle contraction
Factors that Increase CO
Increase SV (Stroke Volume
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become harder into early adulthood and continue to do so until they are bone like (Dimon, 2018).Figure 1: Cartilages of the Larynx
The muscle groups integral to the singing voice are highlighted here, beginning with the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and their functions followed by an overview of the extrinsic muscles which can affect singing. All of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx function as a pair, with the one labelled on Figure 7.2.
As with all the other muscles of the human body, the origin and insertion points name the muscles of the larynx. The muscle pair responsible for the opening or adducting the glottis is the posterior cricoarytenoids (labelled A in Fig. 2) which connect the
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majority of sensory organs at the front end of the organism). Flatworms have small clusters of bundled neurons (known as ganglia) throughout their body, forming a small brain.
The Vertebrate Nervous System
Vertebrates have a spinal cord as well as a more developed brain.The vertebrate nervous system is subdivided into many parts, the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, motor neuron pathways - of which there are two types - somatic (skeletal) and autonomic (glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle). The autonomic nervous system is dived into two sections, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems.
Bone-skull and vertebrae surround the CNS. Fluid and
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variables (you will be given the equations)
· Understand the cell theory : cell is simplest unit of life, all cells come from pre-existing cells, all living things are made from one or more cells (unicellular , multicellular)
· Parts of cell and their functions
· Identify the stages of the cell cycle (including mitosis) : interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
· Recognize the tissues involved in the main organs:SA epithelial(skin) , connective(bone), muscle , nerve (brain, spinal cord)
· Determine the structural difference between plant and animal cells(MC):Plant cell has large vacuole, chloroplast and cell wall
· Explain the function of the different
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, brief, and repetitive. Involve few muscle groups.
Distinct, coordinated patterns of movements. Involve many muscle groups.
- Eye blinking
- Head jerking
- Shoulder shrugging
- Finger flexing
- Throat Clearing
- Grunting sounds
- Smelling or touching objects
- Flapping the arms
- Touching the nose
- Using different tones of voice
-Coprolalia (the involuntary and repetitive use of obscene language, as a symptom of mental illness or organic brain disease)
-Echolalia (meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words)
-Palallia (a language disorder
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goes on, as his arousal continues to increase, he may reach a point in which his performance may decrease due to muscle soreness. If Schmidt does not exceed the optimal level of arousal while working out and has a good workout, he will feel more motivated to continue to work out. If he exceeds the point at which his efficiency is at its highest and has a bad workout, he may feel discouraged to work out more.
A set point is a point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. Since Schmidt lost so much weight, he may have had a spike in hunger from time
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– small veins
c. Veins have valves for one way flow
3. Capillaries – smallest blood vessels, one cell thick that surround all living cells
a. Connect arterioles to venules
b. Bring nutrients and oxygen to every cell and carry wastes away
D. Heart – pump, cardiac muscle, thoracic region
1. 4 chambers
a. Right atrium – receives venous blood from the inferior vena cava and superior vena cava pumps blood through the tricuspid valve (AV valve) to the
b. Right ventricle – pumps blood through the semi-lunar valve to the lungs
c. Left atrium – receives blood from the 2 pulmonary veins and pumps blood through the bicuspid (mitral) valve (AV valve) to
d. Right ventricle – thick muscular walls, pumps blood
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, especially bee stings, carry a device called
an Epi-Pen. An Epi-Pen is a dosage of a powerful hormone, epinephrine, which counteracts an
anaphylactic reaction. To use it, remove the safety cap and simply press the needle end firmly
against the victim's thigh, about midway between the knee and hip. The spring-loaded needle
will automatically extend, delivering the epinephrine into the muscle where it will be rapidly
transferred into the bloodstream. The effect of the epi-pen is temporary, however, and the
person must still get medical attention quickly.
Heatstroke occurs when the core body temperature rises too far for the body's natural defense
mechanisms to function. Ordinarily, if the body
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or even caught the ball. I experienced a partial tear of my rotator cuff when I was playing softball my junior year in highschool. A partial tear is when just the tendon covering the area is damaged. I did not even know it was torn until I went to throw the ball and felt a tremendous amount of pain from my shoulder to my elbow.
The rotator cuff consists of the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the teres minor, and the subscapularis. The supraspinatus hold the humerus in place while keeping the upper area of the arm stable. The infraspinatus is the muscle that is mainly used in order to rotate and extend your shoulder. The teres minor is the smallest of the rotator cuff. It prevents the head
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day from an ongoing heart attack. Hopefully these things will not affect me the way it had affected my papaw.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease. When cholesterol builds in the blood stream the person suffering may begin to get tired easier or have difficulties breathing. The result of this is a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies. The medical term for this is
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Heart disease, also known as the "silent killer", is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, though many people live with this disease for many years without knowing it. Types of heart diseases include coronary artery disease, cardiomyopath, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, and congenital heart disease. The most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease.Coronary artery disease (CAD) is when the arteries that supply blood for the heart muscle gradually hardens and thickens (artherosclorosis) because of the buildup from salt, fat, cholesterol and other substances (plaque) on their inner walls. This process leaves the heart with a lack of oxygen and blood
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Carbohydrate (CHO) is the body's main fuel for high intensity activity. CHO is stored in the liver and in the muscles in the form of glycogen. This amounts to about 100 grams. But even this capacity could vary based on the quantity of glycogen broken down from the supply of blood glucose and the amount of glucose supplied to the liver after food intake. Muscle and liver glycogen levels are fairly small and become lower during physical activity. When the quantity of CHO becomes lower, so does the energy level. At this point, fatigue could quickly boost altering the energy level, the intensity of the exercise, and even the outcome of the practice or competition. Based on the readings and
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- Pre-frail, a stage people go through before they become frail, its very hard to
diagnose as it's clinically silent
- Frail, a stage, a constant continuous clinical deterioriation, the person never
goes back to their normal stage after a mental or physical stress
○ When a person is frail, there is no recovery to the normal level, there is a
constant clinical deterioration
- Diagnosing the pre-fail or early stages of frailty allow for a good treatment of
Frailty - Domains and Impairments
○ Low grip strength, low physical activity
○ Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and strength)
○ Low energy, unintentional weight loss
§ Lower food intake
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probably all evolved from one
creature that had those bones a very long time ago. Some of its children evolved (or changed) into humans, and
other evolved into whales or bats or chimpanzees.
2. Scientists find fossilized bones of a huge animal that doesn’t exist today.
a. What type of evidence is this?___________________________________
b. Why is this evidence of evolution?
3. The human gene for your muscle protein is different from monkey muscle protein in 4 places and different from
a chicken’s gene in 25 places.
a. What type of evidence is this?___________________________________
b. Why is this evidence of evolution?
4. Honey possums lick nectar from flowers using a long tongue made of
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How hard you train.
Vary people train with.
No two athletes will respond in the same wat to a training session.
Coaches must take this into consideration to tailor plan to each athlete.
Factors that need to be taken into account include:
In order for the body to adapt to training, there must be an appropriate recovery period (24-48hours)
Does not have to be a break can alternate hard and easy training sessions.
Can consist of muscle group alternation:
Monday – Biceps
Tuesday – Triceps
Wednesday – Biceps
· Diminishing Returns
This principle sates that for any athlete:
Gains in fitness are more rapid early in a
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. The Heart is responsible for the increased heart rate and blood pressure during exercise, this because when there is a higher demand for oxygen during exercise in order for respiration to occur in cells for that extra energy required during exercise, the hearts muscle tissue then begins to contract at a higher rate on order to push the blood around the body through the blood vessels at a much faster rate, ensuring that oxygen needed is carried to the cells through the blood stream in the blood vessels. When the heart contracts the ventricles are responsible for the increased pressure as this part of the heart pushes the oxygenated blood with more force, from out the bottom of the heart and to
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of copper powder $11.80 for 5g, $16.40 for 25g, and $27.40 for 500g.Copper promotes formation of bone, hemoglobin and red blood cells. It helps in the absorption and use of iron and assists in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. Copper also strengthens blood vessels, bones, tendons, and nerves. Although copper is good for you, excess copper in foods such as seafood, organ meats, nuts, and green vegetables can cause vomiting, nausea, muscle pain, and stomachaches.Today, as well as in the past, people use copper on a daily basis. Copper is second to silver in it's conductivity of electricity and heat. It's used in outdoor power lines as well as wiring in house lamps. Along with
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situations where the breathing rate is irregular or unusual.Muscular activity requires a source of energy. When muscles are working aerobically, there are several products; heat, carbon dioxide, and water. The heat produced by active muscles helps to maintain body temperature, so muscle is contributing to heat homeostasis. However, if more heat is being produced than is needed, as for example during vigorous exercise, the excess heat has to be lost from the body to prevent a harmful rise in body temperature and the potential development of heat stroke. Therefore, homeostasis helps by controlling the bodies physical output and the stress that is put upon muscles, which keeps the muscles from being
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eggs a year.YOUNG: born in late summer after mating in spring. Tiger snakes holding the eggs in their abdomen until they hatch, and giving birth to live young. The young remain with their mother for some time before leaving her.RISK TO HUMANS: More than 3000 Australians are hospitalised each year from tiger snakebites. The Tiger snakes venom is highly toxic and usually kills in 2 to 3 hours if not treated.VENOM: Tiger snakes have potent neurotoxic venom that is highly toxic. The average yield about 35mg.FANGS: 3 to 5 small teeth and 2 rather long fangs.The fangs are 3.5-5mm long.SYMPTOMS: Bites result in unusual drowsiness unable to raise their eyebrows and difficulty in speaking and swallowing, sweat excessively, vomiting and respiratory paralysis, blood pressure may fall and muscle damage, which may lead to renal failure and even death in 2 to 3 hours.
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Ron had wanted to spend camp playing, swimming, and taking long hikes with kids, normal kids. His illusions were quickly washed away at the first site of them. Ron was appalled when he first met the children that he was to spend two weeks with at Camp Wiggen. He thought of them as a bunch of "disfigured wheelchair children," and truly dreaded living with them for the next two weeks. He almost quit, but decided to stay for the money. He had no empathy for the children; only disgust. Ron was to be the councilor of Benny B, Spider, Thomas Stewart, Martin and Arid. Benny B had no legs; Spider had neither legs nor arms; Thomas Stewart lacked the necessary fiber and muscle to hold his body
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applicable laws and rules. In government service, the IRSmight be a good place for me to work. Management accounting would be another accounting sector that might be a good place for me to work. I could use my talents and skills to analyze financial data for companies as they build budgets and analyze their performance, evaluate their cost structure and manage their assets. This type of work would be very interesting to me, as it would be valuable for the team as a whole. Alike this work as it is enjoyable for me to work in a team environment toward defined goals. The workout program P-90X is a very intense muscle confusion workout that I have been using lately. The P-90X company is run almost
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stroke need to be watched severely when working in the medical field because it can cost a patient their life. In Sid’s case study, the first doctor he saw at the walk in clinic pushed away his symptoms because Sid was so young. The doctor told Sid that it was just a muscle strain and that it would go away. I learned that no matter a patient’s age, medical professionals should always be on the lookout for life altering conditions.
Lastly, I feel that the ethical decision making framework is an asset to healthcare providers because it allows the identification of ethical issues that may be happening during patient care. The ethical decision making framework is made up of four components
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external oblique and the internal obliques are located on the sides of the cat's body, the external part can be seen on the cat when the skin is removed from the cat's body.. The subscapularis, infraspinatus, and he spreaspinatus are all located in the same area near the cats shoulder blades. On the back we located the latissimus dorsi. After our muscle identification we were tested. He said we could only missed 2 out the 10 questions he asked us. We thought we were ready, but I don't think we were. The first time we messed up, but don't think that was the real thing. When he came back around we nailed it. The next dissection day we got to open up the cat and observe the cat's
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Exercise helps people to lose and maintain weight. An exercise session burns calories and elevates metabolic rate both during exercise and then for hours after exercise is completed. It helps to preserve and build lean muscle mass. It works to suppress appetite. All of these benefits work together to make exercise vital for maintaining weight loss. The more you work out the more you increase your metabolism. Through my trial of losing weight in the 8th grade I’d mostly do cardio and overtime I saw results and the benefits of cardio stuck with me.
Exercise improves mood. Exercise helps people to relax, improves sleep and reduces muscular tension. That glow of relaxation after a workout is
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of deaths per 10,000 population.1 Heart disease (HD) is the reduction of blood flow due to thickening and hardening of the arteries that supply the heart muscle. A complete cut off of the blood supply results in the death of heart cells, and a heart attack occurs. A common symptom of heart disease is chest pain or discomfort when an area of the heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen. Heart failure occurs when the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently. Stroke occurs when a blood vessel in or leading to the brain bursts or is clogged by a blood clot. A leading cause of death (not only in my community but in New York2) that does not discriminate. Therefore, a significant health
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challenges. Other symptoms of this disease include many foot-bone abnormalities like having hammertoes, difficulties with hand functions, balance, muscle cramps in the lower arms and legs. Also deterioration of sight and hearing takes place, as well as the loss of some normal reflexes. Also in some patient scoliosis, the abnormal curvature of the spine is located.
There are two classifications of Marie-Tooth Disease based on where the dysfunction takes place in the peripheral nerves. The first type is when the peripheral nerves’ axons, which are the part of the nerve cells that moves electrical signals. And in type one of the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease, these axons tend to lose their shell of
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Table 1: Prolonged hormone hypersecretion and the subsequent effects on hormone negative feedback loops.
Organs in Feedback Loop
Target Tissues and Outcomes
( - )
( - )
*abd = abdomen
*ext = extremities
Patient 1: 42-year-old male
Patient History- This patient came in with a large abscess on his leg. He stated that over the past few months he had experienced several infections and 4 colds. His physical exam showed that he has high blood pressure, acne, weight gain in the midsection and upper back, and a “moon face
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. The respiratory system helps the digestive system by giving oxygen to the digestive system. The skeletal system is like a metal shield covering the body. This system helps the respiratory system by protecting the lungs. The circulatory system transports the food nutrients, and oxygen to the body cells. It also delivers of carbon dioxide and waste products. This helps the respiratory system by transporting nutrients to keep the lungs clean, and healthy. The muscular system helps push air come into and leave the respiratory system through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, which is a muscle. The respiratory system has the lungs that deliver air to the muscles. The nervous system
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. (institute of personal training, 2018)
Relating to Touch: The main two energy systems that will be used in touch will be the anaerobic energy systems as touch requires frequent sprints and bursts of short and quick movements which will use these energy systems however throughout the game as the ATP is depleted and the body does not have enough rest time to recover the athletes body will start producing energy slower through the use of the anaerobic system, when this starts it could be seen as a good time to take a substitution to give the body enough time to replenish its ATP storages
Body composition: Refers to the shape and size of the body considering a muscle to fat
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bronchi become thinner, eventually leading into the alveoli
3. The Alveoli – the main structural (lungs are made up of alveoli) & functional (surrounded by capillaries which perform the gas exchange) unit of the lungs
4. The Lungs – the left lung has 2 lobes & the right lung has 3 lobes. Each lobe is divided into lobules
Pleura – a membrane covering the lungs
· External Pleura – covers the chest
· Internal Pleura – covers the lungs
Pleural Cavity – fluid filled space between the external & internal pleura
A. Inspiration – the rib cage moves up & out and the diaphragm which is the main respiratory muscle moves down, making more space for air.
When the lung volume increases, the pressure
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. plants only
contain enzymes for breakdown of complex macromelcules and detoxification. produces hydrogen peroxide which also must be broken down
protein skeleton or scaffolding, gives cell shape. aids in internal transport of vesicles
largest of 3 protein in cytoskeleton, involved in cell motility - flagella/cilia
smallest filament- involved in division / cytokinesis and contraction in muscle cells
role in cell mobility
collection of microtubules that form spindle fibers for chromosome separation during mitosis. animal cells only
fluid and material found outside