The Cardiovascular System Essay

1729 words - 7 pages

Cardiovascular SystemStructure lies within thorax b/w lungs in the mediastinal space beating is palpable @ 5th intercostals space, approx 2 in. left of midline this pulsation (arising at the apex of the heart) is termed point of maximal impulse. Endocardium = thin, inner lining/layer Myocardium = layer of muscle Epicardium = fibrous, outer layer Heart is surrounded by the pericardiumo Inner (visceral) layer is in contact with the epicardiumo Outer (parietal) layer is connected with the mediastinum Pericardial fluid lubricates the space b/w the pericardial layers and prevents friction. Heart is divided vertica ...view middle of the document...

Conduction system Specialized nerve tissue responsible for creating and transporting the electrical impulse or action potential. Impulse initiates depolarization & cardiac contraction. Electrical impulse is initiated by SA (sinoatrial) note; the pacemaker of the heart. Mechanical contraction of the atria follows the depolatization Impulse travels from atria AV node bundle of Hisleft and right bundle branches The action potential diffuses widely through the walls of both ventricles by means of Purkinje fibers The efficient ventricular conduction system delivers the impulse within 0.12 seconds; this triggers a uniform ventricular contraction Cycle starts with depolarization of SA node Cycle ends with repolarization when the contractile fiber cells & conduction pathway cells repair their resting polarized conditionElectrocardiogram Detects electrical activity of heart P = firing of the SA node & represents depolarization of the fibers of the atria QRS = depolarization from the AV node through the ventricles NOTE - there is a delay of impulse transmission through the AV node that accounts for the time sequence between the end of the P wave and the beginning of the QRS wave. T = repolarization of the ventricles U = if seen, represents delayed ventricular repolarization & may be associated with hypokalemia. Intervals b/w these waves reflect the length of time it takes for the impulse to travel from one area of the heart to another.Mechanical System Systole = contraction of the myocardium; results in ejection of blood from the cardiac chamber Diastole = relaxation of the myocardium; allows for filling of the chamber. Cardiac output = measurement of mechanical efficiency; is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 min. CO is calculated by multiplying stroke volume by heart rate. For the normal adult at rest, CO is 4-8 L/min. Cardiac index = the CO divided by the body mass index. Normal CI is 2.8-4.2 L/min per square meter.Factors affecting cardiac output Preload = determines the amnt. of stretch placed on myocardial fibers. Contractility can be increased by norepinephrine released by the sympathetic nervous system, as well as by epinephrine; this raises the SV by increasing ventricular emptying. Afterload = peripheral resistance against which the left ventricle must pump and is affected by the size of the ventricles, wall tension and arterial blood pressure; ventricular hypertrophy (enlargement of the cardiac muscle tissue without an increase in the size of the cavities).Cardiac Reserve The ability to respond to demands by altering CO threefold or fourfold is termed cardiac reserve Increase in Co results from increase in HR or SV HR can increase to as high as 180 bpm for short periods. The SV can be increased by increas...


Complete debriefing of the cardiovascular system - Human Biology - Review

898 words - 4 pages Cardiovascular System I. Cardiovascular System – Heart and blood vessels A. Functions 1. Contractions of heart generate blood pressure in arteries for flow 2. Keep oxygen rich blood and carbon dioxide rich blood separate 3. One way valves in heart and veins keep blood flowing one way 4. Heart and blood vessels regulate blood flow according to needs of the body 5. Exchange of nutrients and oxygen to the cells and removal of wastes B. Circulation

Pharmacology Exam 4 Study Guide- The Cardiovascular System (20) - Fairleigh Dickinson University - Study Guide

3138 words - 13 pages The Cardiovascular System (20): ● Drug therapy hypertension: o RAAS Suppressants (4) Hypertension (HTN), Heart Failure, Diabetic Nephropathy, left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction (MI) ▪ ACE inhibitors- ​captopril (Capoten) ● Expected Pharmacologic Action: Blocks production of angiotensin II, Vasodilation (arteriolar), Urinary excretion of sodium and water, Urinary retention of potassium ● Side and Adverse Effects: o

Biology - Cardiovascular, Digestive, Respiratory and Urinary Systems - Touro College - Biology 101 - Cardiovascular system

2572 words - 11 pages Test #2 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart & The Blood Vessels: Function: To transport Oxygen (O2) to the cells & tissues in the body and remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Parts of the Cardiovascular System include: 1. The Heart – the pump 2. The Blood – the fluid 3. The Vascular System – a series of blood vessels The Heart: A hollow, muscular organ that lies between the lungs Parts: 1. Pericardium – a membrane that surrounds the outside of the

Assignment On Homeostasis

485 words - 2 pages Free the activities of the cardiovascular system are often a result of changes in the activities of other systems. The heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral resistance and blood pressure respond to different degrees of bodily activity, and sometimes our level of activity is affected by environmental factors. The heart rate slows and cardiac output falls when demands on bodily systems are less are in a secure and non-threatening environment. When

Assignment On The Lymphatic System

659 words - 3 pages used as class final paper over and body system great research!!The Lymphatic SystemThe Lymphatic System is very important. It helpswith the Cardiovascular system, and our immune systems.The Lymphatic System is made up of two semi-independentparts. One is a network of lymphatic vessels. The otherpart is various lymphoid tissues and organs all over thebody. The functions of the Lymphatic System transportingfluids that have escaped from the blood

Social Harmony - Polite Vs Harmonic? - Ivy Tech Interpersonal Communications - Reflection Paper

918 words - 4 pages system triggers the fight or flight response, causing us to react to this warning that something is amiss by way of it’s impact on multiple body systems. If you remember becoming angry and noting an elevated pulse along with a more rapid pattern to your breathing, as well as the heat rushing to your head, making your ears ring, you have experienced the effects of this on your cardiovascular, pulmonary, and circulatory systems, probably having been

Exercise Recommendations for Stroke Patients 2003 - SFSU - Thesis Proposal

4482 words - 18 pages Kinesiology San Francisco State University 1. Introduction The aim of the proposed study is to examine the correlation of fitness and cardiovascular autonomic nervous system modulation in post-stroke patients. The study investigates differences of stroke patients with age and sex matched controls. Fitness will be measured by metabolic gas analysis in response to a symptom limited graded exercise test. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation will be


1785 words - 8 pages Free identified as containing properties for aiding in disease prevention (Homsey 1999). Phytochemicals are associated with the prevention and/or treatment of at least four of the leading causes of death in the United States - cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension (American Dietetic Association 1999; Homsey 1999; Messina 1997). They are involved in many processes including ones that help prevent cell damage, prevent cancer cell

stress management and its way to prevent. HD 101 - antelope valley college - essay

536 words - 3 pages Free . Other results include cardiovascular system, digestive system, weight, immune system, sleep, relationships, mood, mind, and mental health. COMMON CAUSES OF STRESS 1. Financial stress: how are you going to pay your student loans. 2. Daily hassles: not enough time in the day to finish your tasks. 3. Academic pressure: the pressure of doing well in school. 4. Job related: that one coworker or unreasonable demands. 5. Social stress: worrying on the

The effects of prescription drugs - fiu/ English - Essay

669 words - 3 pages mainly for treating sleeping disorders, tension and anxiety. CNS work by slowing down the brains activity through the gamma –amino butyric acid (GABA) by releasing a calming effect. In large doses this drug can cause drowsiness or sleep. Opioids can cause death to the physical exhaustion or the cardiovascular system. Stimulants on the other hand ae used to treat aliments for example, obesity, narcolepsy and attention deficit disorders. Once the

English paper that needs to be 6 pages - English 3 - Essays

1732 words - 7 pages breathing over 4,000 chemicals are use in daily use to clean something or getting nail paint off. And those chemicals are making your lungs black because of the tar and other chemicals. There are many more disease that it can get into your lungs system like Chronic bronchitis, it can block the air way to get air in to live. Another way that cigarettes have negative effects is about the money. You can spend up to seven dollars if you like a good

Final paper on estrogen receptor 1 - Arizona/Genetics - Essay

2171 words - 9 pages Free ESR1 Introduction: Estrogens play a vital role in physiological processes involved in reproduction, sexual development, cardiovascular health, and bone integrity4. ESR1, a gene which encodes the estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα) is an important part of these processes. ERα is a nuclear steroid hormone receptor which acts as a transcription factor to regulate cell proliferation. It is also involved in estrogen signaling, which facilitates processes

Hemodynamics and the Urinary System - English - Homework Assignments

2207 words - 9 pages cycle ● Why is the control of mean arterial pressure important? 1) To maintain and control blood flow (perfusion) to organs, tissues, etc. 2) To influence bulk movement (filtration) across capillary walls Flow ● Blood flow (perfusion) = Amount blood/time moving past a given point or into or out of an organ ● To change flow, must change pressure or resistance Blood Pressure in Various Parts of the Cardiovascular System ● Roughly the same in aorta and

Chapter 1: intro to the human body - Athabasca anatomy and physiology 235 - Chapter 1 notes

3689 words - 15 pages human body, list representative organs of each system, and describe the major functions of each system. (Learn major components and functions for each system) Systems: integumentary; skeletal; muscular; nervous; endocrine; cardiovascular; lymphatic; respiratory; digestive; urinary; reproductive Integumentary System: Components: Skin and associated structures, such as hair, fingernails and toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands. Functions

Nutrition and health - case study - Nutrition and health - Case study

2434 words - 10 pages Physical Activity, Nutrition & Health - Your Results Thank you for participating in the 400892 Physical Activity, Nutrition and Health research project. Based on the information you have provided, a general assessment of your health is provided below. Please note that this general assessment does not take the place of advice from qualified health professionals. This report uses a traffic light system to indicate risk. If any of your health