30 March 2018
UN Peacekeeping vs. Peace Enforcement
United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations have been deployed globally for decades. According to the UN, peacekeeping operations started in 1948 with military observers first going into the Middle East.[footnoteRef:1] Originally, UN peacekeeping started as a nonviolent means of neutralizing conflict through the maintenance of ceasefires and support of pre-existing peace negotiations.[footnoteRef:2] In addition, the Brahimi report states the three foundational principles upon which all UN peacekeeping operations should be structured, which are “consent of local parties, impartiality, and the use of force only in self-defense.”[footnoteRef:3] However, there has been a change in the types of UN peacekeeping operations since the end of the Cold War. They have more often been deployed in the midst of ongoing internal struggle and war.[footnoteRef:4] Not only are peacekeeping operators entering into conflict ridden states, they have changed the strategy of peacekeeping from “defensive to offensive peacekeeping” with utilization of UN military troops.[footnoteRef:5] This paper aims to explore effective and successful practices of reducing conflict and maintaining peace through UN operations. First, the paper will explore the difference between peacekeeping and peace enforcement. Second, it will dissect the original intentions and practices of peacekeeping missions. Third, the paper will compare recent changes to the traditional stance of the UN’s peacekeeping practices. Fourth, the paper will go onto validate the thesis and defeat the counter argument that militarized peacekeeping operations has had an adverse impact on reducing violence and promoting peace. Lastly, the paper will conclude that even though UN peacekeeping operations have deviated from their original directive, they have become more effective through the use of military personnel and active engagement in conflicts. [1: United Nations(a). “Our History.” United Nations. https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/our-history. ] [2: Caplan, Richard. “Peacekeeping / Peace Enforcement,” Encyclopedia Princetoniensis, accessed March 25, 2018, https://pesd.princeton.edu/?q=node/259 ] [3: United Nations(b). "Brahimi Report UN System Assessment and Recommendations for Change." United Nations 83, no. 7. (September 2004): 203-207. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed March 29, 2018).] [4: Hultman, Lisa, Jacob Kathman, and Megan Shannon(a). "Beyond Keeping Peace: United Nations Effectiveness in the Midst of Fighting." The American Political Science Review 108, no. 4 (11, 2014): 737-753. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003055414000446. http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1626126101?accountid=7014.] [5: Peter, Mateja. 2015. “Between Doctrine and Practice: The UN Peacekeeping Dilemma.” Global Governance 21 (3): 351-370....