Empiricism: the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation.
Structuralism: an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind. Introduced by Edward Titchener.
Introspection: looking inward
Overt: in the open, something that can be seen.
Covert: hidden, something that cannot be seen.
Subjective: existing in the mind: personal emotions, beliefs, feelings, etc.
Objective: intending to complete a goal, the same applies to everyone.
Functionalism: a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish. Introduced by William James.
Experimental psychology: the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Humanistic psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.
Cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes of people and organisms. Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany.
Nature-Nurture issue: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes (nature) and experience (nurture) make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Natural Selection: the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Charles Darwin proposed this theory.
Psychometrics: the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.
Applied research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Basic research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Developmental psychology: the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
Educational psychology: the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
Personality psychology: the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Social psychology: the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Industrial-Organizational psychology: the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Human factors psychology: the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments.
Counseling psychology: a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often...