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1. We have seen the ebb and flow of consciousness in psychology. Compare and contrast the idea of consciousness as discussed by the theorists below. Make sure to contextualize each and define their view of consciousness. What unique attribute or feature do these separate theorists ascribe to consciousness? For example, if we were discussing Wundt, we'd have to say that he gives comprehensive view of consciousness (the elements and folk psychology) but these remain a dichotomy, as in never the two shall meet in the name of science. In other words, what is the defining feature of each of these views? Please include reference to methods used to study consciousness. In what way could James and Gestalt, though earlier, present a useful critique of Cognitive Information Processing?
a. Gestalt
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind to include the mental processes of emotion and thought. Other ways of attempting to understand behavior and mental processes include the fields of philosophy and literature which depend solely on the personal self-examination for an understanding of an individual’s mind. Psychology, itself, is a young field of study with its roots being a particular contribution of philosophy and physical science. What makes psychology different is that it uses scientific methods and objective measures to test hypotheses regarding how the mind works and of the mind itself. Its creation was the blending of the questions that were being asked by philosophy and methods borrowed from the physical sciences. The question that has been asked for many, many years is always related to the content of human nature meaning the connection between the body and the mind leading to nature versus nurture in many attempts to understand and explain experience and behavior. Early psychologists sought to answer questions about personal introspection, observation of others and logic by utilizing methods and standards of evidence based on the categorization of physical science. In the 17th and the 19th century medical research showed that mental experiences were affected by changes in the brain and that the mind is within the physical body. This suggested that the human mind could be studied and investigated using techniques that already existed for the study of the physical world which produced objective data to test theories surrounding human experience and human behavior.
Gestalt psychology is defined as a theory of the mind. It was created at the Berlin School of Experimental Psychology during the 20th century. It attempts to gain a level of comprehension of the laws that rule the human aptitude to obtain and preserve perceptions of meaning in a unruly world. Gestalt psychology offered the belief that a person’s mind actively shapes perceptions and it assists to form gestalts (units). An example of this is that when we hear a tune we can recall it and identify it even when it is not played back at the same tone, the same speed or with ...


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