Chapter 1Section 1Access The Main Idea1.what are the characteristics of states?-population,territory,government,and sovereignty.2.what are the different theories about government?-some thought that the state was a nature stage in the evolution of human society,growing out of the family relationship between parents and children.rulers were seen as 'parents ,'-the people of the state.Another theory saw a strong leader as the most important element in the state.such rulers would take power by force,creating myths and legends proving to the people that they were 'superior ' and their rule could not be challenged.For review:1.population,territory,government,and sovereignty.2.legitimacy is necessary if the government is to be stable,effective,and lasting.3a. Royal power,came from God,and no authority on earth could take it away.3b.There people had complete freedom to do as they pleased,provided they were powerful and resourceful enough to do so.4.Natural RightSection 2The main idea1.to protect natural territory,and to preserve peace within its boundaries.2.There are many different types of political conflict. One of the causes of political conflict is guns. Some politicians want them around and some are completely against them..For review1.What are the four functions that all modern governments perform?1.1.to establish justice. 2.to insure domestic tranquility. 3.to provide for the common defense. 4. To promote the general welfare.2.health:clean water supply. Safety:traffic control. Transportation:canals. Education:establishing school system. Welfare:retirement pensions.3.Tangible is something you can see, touch or feel--others get a full view of these items.....on the other hand the, intangible is not anything you can see, touch or feel It is a concept, an idea,4.Compromise is important in democracy as it ensures that no side will stalemate, and both all sides could get some part of what they initially wanted.Section 3THE MAIN IDEAAuthority must be divided between the state and its political subdivisions.these political subdivisions may be called be many different names:states,counties and provinces.For review1.they get power from people .2.The national government and the state government each are granted some powers.A federal system enables a strong central government to handle common problems.3.Yes.4.They usually use usually use force or fraud (holding false elections on the premise that it will give people a vote for who they want in government or just rigging the ballots) to gain power and then they keep it through intimidation.Section 4The main idea1.one basic principle of American democracy is the belief in individual worth.2.Liberty, Equality, pursuit of happiness, life, freedom..For review1.americans assume that each person knows what is best for himself or herself and generally has the right to make personal choices and decisions.2.The law applies to government and government officials as mush as to ordinary citizens.3.public officials must make decisions based onthe law,not only on their own opinions or wishes.4. Majority rule is just a voting procedure for resolving disagreements within a deliberative assembly. Sometimes it might be combined with other rules, like those requiring unanimous or two-thirds votes on certain issues.Section 5The main idea1.it states only that candidates for national office must have been ciztizens for a certain number of years.2.Citizens can lose their status by expatriation.For review1.1a.the constitution1b.almost everyone born either on American soil or to American parents is automatically a citizen.2.2.the fourteenth amendment.3.3a.everyone born either on American soil or to American parents is automatically a citizen.3b.these included 5 years of residence in the united states,the ability to read,write,and speak english,and an understanding of American government and history.4.4.legal aliens can own attend public schools.they are guaranteed due process and legal protection.Chapter 2Section 2The main idea.1.1.colonists from England brought with them long-established traditions of politics,law,and government.these traditions would deeply influence the forms of government that developed in the new land.2.2.the English colonists brought with them four important principles that became cornerstones of American political thought.(1).limited government,(2)representative government.(30individual liberty,and (4)rule by law.For review1.1.(1).limited government,(2)representative government.(30individual liberty,and (4)rule by law.2a.The House of lords was made up of bishops and great nobles who neither inherited their seats or were appointed.this house dominated Parliament until the early 1700's.2b.The House of Common included knights and townsmen who were elected by other knights and townspeople.3.PETITION OF RIGHT (1628), Parliamentary declaration of the rights and liberties of the people, assented to by Charles I in the beginning of his reign (1628), and considered a constitutional document second in importance only to Magna Charta. The petition demanded:that no freeman should be forced to pay any tax, loan, or benevolence, unless in accordance with an act of parliament;that no freeman should be imprisoned contrary to the laws of the land;that soldiers and sailors should not be billeted on private persons;commissions to punish soldiers and sailors by martial law should be abolished.Section 2The main idea:1.The colonies were governed by governors. The governors were appointed by the King of England. The governors of each colony could make any law that they chose to..2.-In 1685 James II became king of England. He was determined to take more control over the English government, both in England and in the colonies. James believed that the colonies were too independent. In 1686 he united the northern colonies under one government called the Dominion of New England. James named Sir Edmund Andros royal governor of the Dominion. The colonists disliked Andros because he used his authority to limit the powers of town meetings.For review1.1.l it wasnt until after the French and Indian war that England really tried to totally control the colonies. They imposed taxes, such as the stamp act, and the tea tax. Some of the colonies had governors apointed by the British to run their colony. They also didnt want the colonies to engage in trade with other countries so they would try to control ports. The proclamation of 1763 also stated that colonists couldn't move into the land west of the Appalachian mountains.2.2.Virginia was the first colony with a representative assembly, establishing the House of Burgesses in 1619..3.3. Both Rhode Island and Connecticut were established by settlers who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony.because they were independent of any proprietor or trading company,these colonists had an unusual amount of control over their own governments.4.4.the French and Indian War not only changed British colonial policies but also had a significant impact within the american colonies.5.5.the stamp act of 1765 was most upsetting to the colonists.this law placed a tax on all printed material,including newspapers,merchants'bills,legal documents,and even playing cards and calendars.Section 3The main idea-the Declaration of independence has several parts.Jefferson began the document with an explanation of why it was being written and the basic principles on which it was based.the final part of the Declaration explains the colonists' efforts to achieve a peaceful settlement,the British government's stubbornness,and the Americans' resolve to be free.For review1.1.because war had began,the congress was forced to take on the powers of a government and organize the colonies' defense.it immediately eatablished an army to carry on the war against the british and named George Washington as commander.2.2.the Declaration of independence has several parts.Jefferson began the document with an explanation of why it was being written and the basic principles on which it was based.jefferson listed many of the basic principles of american democracy-limited government,representative government,individual liberty,and rule by law.3.3.legislative,executive,and judicial.4.4.congress was powerless to levy or collect taxes. Congress was unable to maintain an army or navy because it would not pay for them. Congress had no control over foreign or interstate commerce.Section 4The main idea1.1.Samuel Adams and John Hancock.2.2. In order to satisfy the southern slave holding states on the issue of determining population for representation in the National Government. The northern non-slave holding state didn't want slaves to count as a whole person, or the population in the south would be too much. The southern states wanted the slaves to be counted. The compromise was the 5 slaves would count as 3 people. Answer The 3/5 Compromise was a political negotiation by the South to acheive more voting power in the national legislatureFor review1.1.Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not chosen as delegates because of their hostility to the idea of a strong national government .2.2.the virginia plan proposed two houses,lower house elected by the people ,executive branch selected by congress.3.3..NJ Plan main features: The current Congress was maintained, but granted new powers. An executive, elected by Congress, was created. The executives served a single term and were subject to recall based on the request of state governors.4.4..In order to satisfy the southern slave holding states on the issue of determining population for representation in the National Government. The northern non-slave holding state didn't want slaves to count as a whole person, or the population in the south would be too much. The southern states wanted the slaves to be counted. The compromise was the 5 slaves would count as 3 people. Answer The 3/5 Compromise was a political negotiation by the South to acheive more voting power in the national legislaturenorthern delegates agreed that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted in determining representation,but they also were not be counted in either situation.5.5.the debate over ratification throughout the country was as heated and dramatic as the arguments in philadelphia.those who favored the creation of the new federal system of government were called federalists.those who opposed it were known as antifederalists.