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Stem Cells: A Promise for Advancements in Health Care What is a stem cell? It is a cell that is able to divide for a long period of time and gives rise to other cells ("Intermediate"). They are mostly used in human development when a sperm begins fertilizing an egg, creating a single cell that eventually forms into a whole organism. The fertilized egg, now known as totipotent, has the ability to change into extraembryonic tissues and membranes, postembryonic tissues and organs, and the embryo. Two totipotent cells are created after the first cycle of cell division. Four days after the division, a blastocyst (sphere of cells), is formed. The outer layer of cells makes up the placenta and the
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benefits of stem cell research to the human race are far too monumental to be overlooked or outlawed. Human cloning should be regulated, but it should not be banned entirely.Stem cells are the primordial cells from which all tissue develops. At the earliest stage of development humans are composed of cells which are either totipotent, meaning they have full potential to become any of the more than 200 cell types that make up the body, or they are pluripotent, meaning they have the capacity to become many of the specialized cells that make up the human body, such as brain cells, neurons, and various tissue cells. Adult stem cells have developed to a stage called multipotent, which means they are
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cells, has the capability to cure people with life-threatening diseases and crippling disabilities. Humans are made up of a complex system of cells. No one knows the exact number of cells in the human body. However, we do know that the human body contains trillions of cells, and all of our activities, from running to thinking, result from the combined and coordinated responses of millions or billions of cells (Martini 68). One type of cell that is of interest is the stem cell. A stem cell is a primitive type of cell that can be coaxed into "developing into most of the 220 types of cells found in the human body" ("Medical" n. page). The two basic types of stem cells are adult stem cells
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Hannah Warren born in 2010 in South Korea 2010 with the inability to breathe, eat, drink or swallow on her own. Doctors there told her parents there was no hope and they expected her to die. Until the operation at a U.S. hospital, where a windpipe was grown from stem cells, the youngest patient in the world to benefit from the experimental treatment.
Paige Poppleton born in 2013 in Botswana with Cerebral Palsy was injected with stem cells from an umbilical cord repairing the damaged tissue in her brain and giving back her ability to walk, see and speak.
Stem cell therapy is transforming medicine and with it the lives of increasing numbers of patients with life-threatening
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INTRODUCTIONIs it ethical to favor the killing of unborn babies in order to extract their stem cells for medical research?The word ethics is a theory or system of moral values; the discipline dealing with what is good or bad and with moral duty and obligation. We find that the moral and ethical standings are tested when scientist and theologist go head to head in the debate over "stem cell research".In November 1998, two independent teams U.S scientists reported that they had succeeded in isolating and culturing stem cells obtained from human embryos and fetuses. Because many diseases result from the death or dysfunction of a single cell type, scientists believe that the introduction of
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Case StudyStem CellsThis argument concentrates on the value of Stem Cells. First off, Stem cells are the earliest of cells that give rise to other types of cells, and have the potential to turn into many different types of tissue. Like Totipotent cells. Totipotent cells are considered the "master" cells of the body because they contain all the genetic information needed to create all the cells of the body, plus the placenta. So in other words, Stem Cell research can go along way to figure out the body's functions, and disease causing illnesses.So the British took in affect that this research is extremely valuable to their country and waist no time in testing their research further. No
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easily than usual and/or get cuts that heal slowly or do not heal4. And last but not least, someone with too few normal white blood cells and too many leukemia blast cells may get a lot of infections, have pain in the bones or joints and/or have a mild fever4. However, some people with AML do not notice any symptoms. AML is diagnosed by examining bone marrow and blood samples under a microscope4. (National Cancer Institute, Leukemia) Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia can undergo chemotherapy treatments orblood stem cell transplant to try and treat the illness. Blood stem cell transplants can treat AMLby transplanting healthy blood-producing cells into the patient's marrow
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embryonic stem cell research that Bush had placed into effect. President Obama believed that these tiny cells may possibly cure some of our most devastating diseases.President Barack Obama overturned the restriction and is requesting more funds to be used for the stem cell research and he also lifted the prohibition on U.S. funding for international groups that promote abortion and proposed rescinding job protections for health care workers who refuses to perform procedures that conflicts with their moral beliefs. This is the third time that President Obama had to reversed Bush era policies at the intersection of public health goals and ethical questions in regards to the human nature of
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molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live
DNA replication: DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA
molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules.
DNA Screening: the analysis of DNA samples to detect the presence of a gene or
genes associated with an inherited disorder.
Embryonic Stem Cell: are stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells
of a human embryo.
Enzymes: biological catalysts which speed up chemical reactions, but remain
unchanged themselves. Substrate. the substance which an enzyme works on.
Gallbladder: the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after
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God decides to bring life into the world life is considered sacred and is entitled to basic human rights. My belief on abortion is also consistent with the Catholic Churchs encyclical Evangelium Vitae written by John Paul II. However, I believe that there are 3 exceptions to this rule: incestual relations, rape, or the baby will bring death to the mother. These exceptions of mine fall under my belief of pursuing the greater good in certain scenarios.
Over the past 100 years, science has made revolutionary discoveries regarding the potential of stem cells and their ability to heal the sick. Christopher Reeves was a huge advocate for the process of cloning through stem cell research to be made
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syndrome. This article was used to demonstrated that there is, in fact, a beneficial effect on the infusion of bone marrow-derived cells thereby eliminating the need for radiation therapy. The principal hypothesis of the primary literature is that bone marrow, blood transfusions or embryonic stem cells are capable of reversing the effects of renal disease by regenerating the missing alpha-3 chain of Type IV collagen (LeBleu et al. 2009). The experiments that were conducted include multiple infusions of Wild-Type bone marrow, simple transfusions from Wild-Type mice and embryonic stem cell transplantations. Mice were chosen as the test subjects for this study as the genetic makeup of mice closely
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through a brainstem circuit that also contributes to the pain-suppressing effects of morphine (Carter). There is also research concerning a population of adult stem cells in the muscle tissue play an important role in muscle regeneration. There are actually signals that can be sent to these stem cells to form new muscle offering people a way to postpone effects of diseases like ALS.The most famous case of ALS known is the case of Lou Gehrig. Lou Gehrig was a famous baseball player, and died from ALS. Gehrig was a superb ball player and he was also an incredible human being. Gehrig was modest, never flashy, and as a result he did not receive the attention that was bestowed on his colorful teammate
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? According to, Donna M. Bozzone, any defeat to balance the number of cell births and cell deaths can lead to unusual proliferation which can consequence in cancer (Bozzone 5). For ovarian cancer as stated by Jeri Freedman, "as the cancerous cells continue to reproduce and grow, they damage the ovarian tissue around them" (Freedman 9). In the video, Types of Cancer and Their Symptoms, they said that a large family of disease that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or other parts of the body. Then form hemoplasma(tumors). There are two different types of tumors, a Benign and a Malignant tumor. A Malignant tumor are cancerous, unlike Benign tumors, they're made up of cells that
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conception is impossible through normal intercourse. The "in vitro" refers to the test tubes .Surrogacy is a reproductive technology that involves a woman carrying a child for another woman, who may have fertility problems, health problems, or some other reason for not wanting to carry a child to term. The woman will often be fertilized by artificial methods with the sperm of the other woman's husband or will be impregnated with the conceptus produced from the woman's ova and her husband's sperm through in vitro fertilization .It is also important to mention stem cells because they can be used as the basis for cloning. Stem cells have the ability to become any type of cell to form skin, bones
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size because the amount of material between cells increases. In a growing bone, mineral deposits accumulate between bone cells, causing the bone to grow.
Differentiation: The development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state. Such precursor cells, which can divide and give rise to cells undergo differentiation are known as stem cells.
Stem cells: Every type of cell in the body has a specialized structure or function that differs from its precursor (ancestor) cells. For example, red blood cells and several types of white blood cells all arise from the same unspecialized precursor cells in the red bone marrow. Also through differentiation, a single fertilized egg develops
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concept behind bioengineering, the word by itself is so difficult to conceptualize. The type of engineering cannot even be compared to either chemical engineering or electrical engineering. Bioengineering is unique by the fact that it applies the principles of engineering to life itself (Aurrekoetxea, Maitane 289). This is opposed by many people since they don’t quite understand what it is all about and hence developing so many arguments. Bioengineering is mainly involved in genetic testing, tissue regeneration, stem cell research, micromachines and robotics. People often argue against these activities especially the idea behind stem cells by stating that they are ideally unethical.
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+ exit the guard cells onto neighboring cells, the stomata closes. Stomata are generally opened during the day and closed during night, in order to prevent the plant from losing too much water when it is too dark for photosynthesis. However, stress from the environment, such as water deficiency, the guard cells may lose turgor and close the stomata. The stomata also have a daily rhythm or clock to which the continual opening and closing of the stomata occurs.Water potential is the potential energy created by the water molecules within the plant stem. Water always flows from areas of high water potential to areas of low water potential. Therefore, it causes water to flow to lower water
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produce more xylem for thickness. Auxin causes plasma membrane to transport four ions out o the cell. Synthetic auxins are used to kill weeds. Agent Orange is used to kill unwanted trees or to control weeds. Agent Orange is not used anymore due to the fact it harmed animals as well as plants.Gibberellins stimulate elongation of stem cells and cell division. It can also help to fix problems with faulty, odd plants. This hormone helps the development leaves, sexual flowering plants and helps differentiate phloem tissue. Also it can stimulate production of auxin, as well as make plants more responsive to auxin treatment.Another hormone is cytokinin, which stimulates cell division. Cytokinin is
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, by acquiring a research company formed by the Scottish institute famous for cloning Dolly the sheep, "one day to clone tissue to repair human organs damaged by age or degenerative diseases such as cancer or osteoporosis" (Anonymous Company Aims To Clone Human Tissue for Transplants NA). In the following, the author illustrates some of the specifics involved in such implementation of cloning technology: "'Stem cells give us the ability to create new cells,' Eastman said. 'By using telomerase, we can take a normal cell and convert it into one having an infinite capacity to regenerate. By adding the cloning technology used to create Dolly, we can eliminate the threat of rejection.' Telomerase
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. Plants, such as banana trees, may be able to contain an edible vaccine. Safer foods will be produced through reduction of allergenic proteins. Crops will be made drought and flood tolerant. Crops will be made salt and metal tolerant. Crops will be made heat and cold tolerant. These are just a few possibilities and scientists might be working on these alterations at this very moment.Cloning research is an important aspect of biology that will be critical for solving problems of the future. This continued research will provide information that is very beneficial to society.1. Cloned embryos are said to be needed for research on embryonic stem cells that promise to revolutionize medicine