Effects Of Nutrition And Exercise On Weight Management Singapore Polytechnic/Diploma In Nutrition, Health, And Wellness/Full Time Course/Year 1 A/Class 01 Assignment

2700 words - 11 pages

LC0256: COMMUNICATING FOR PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS
(REPORT)
Evaluation of weight loss using Lifestyle Diets, Drugs and Exercise
DNHW/FT/1A/01
AY 2018/2019 Y1 SEM 1
GROUP 5
AUTHORS: SIM WEIZHI, LIM LI ,LIM WEI RUI BELINDA ,
LIONEL CHEAH KAI EN
Content Page
Content Page
Content Page 1
Acknowledgements 2
Introduction 3
Exercise and its effects on weight loss Review Introduction 3
Aerobic Exercise 3
Anaerobic Exercise 4
Drugs and its effects on weight loss Review Introduction 4
Orlistat 4-5
Phentermine 5
Sibutramine 5
Lifestyle Diets and its effects on weight loss Review Introduction 5
Paleo Diet 5-6
Raw Food Diet 6
Mediterranean Diet 6
Vegetarian Diet 6-7
Conclusion 7
References 8-10
1
Acknowledgements
We would like to take this opportunity to
thank Miss Cyrine Joosa for her guidance.
During this project, She has helped us a lot
through the advice she gave us.Besides being
constantly advising us, she also take a step
forward to motivate us and ensure that we
would be submitting quality work.
Without her help ,I believe we would not be
able to complete our task on time .
Once again, We thank you for your guidance.
2
Evaluation of weight loss using Lifestyle Diets, Drugs and Exercise
Introduction
Singapore is facing an obesity epidemic (Foo, L.L. et al., 2013), as citizens become more
affluent, leading more sedentary lifestyles. This has led to weight loss issues growing
significantly. Due to this,chronic disease sufferers increases.This poses a heavy burden on one’s
life such as Type 2 Diabetes and other diseases that decreases one’s overall quality of life.
Thus,maintaining a healthy weight has become important (Anon,2016).Research papers
(Erlanger & Henson, 2008​.​) have stated that obesity is treatable and weight loss can be achieved
through medicine and other methods.However, these papers have not assessed the effectiveness
of specific methods.Hence, this study focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of exercise,diet,
and drugs in achieving healthy weight loss.
Exercise and its effects on weight loss
Exercise has been scientifically proven to aid in weight loss.With much attention paid to
workouts as weight loss measures, there has been much debate about which types of exercises
help to burn more fat in our bodies.Thus,it is important to investigate the effects of 2 types of
exercises on weight loss: aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise has been defined by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) as
physical activity involving large muscle groups continuously over a period of time at a steady
pace (Patel, 2017).An example of aerobic exercise is jogging.Studies have shown that aerobic
exercise is effective in weight loss even without making changes to a person’s current diet
(Leehey, 2012).This is due to an increased energy expenditure without increasing daily
kilocalorie intake.In an experiment carried out across a period of ten months, it was observed
that there was significant weight loss from those who did aerobic exercise(Donnelly et al,
2013).In addition, a study done at the University of British Columbia found that regular aerobic
exercise, “appears to boost the size of the hippocampus, the brain area involved in verbal
memory and learning” (Heidi Goodman, 2014).
However, as much as we agree on the benefits of exercise,studies have proven that aerobic
exercise failed to decrease blood pressure levels of non-dipper hypertensives.In an
experiment,blood pressure of two groups of essential arterial hypertension patients: dippers and
non-dippers were tracked while performing aerobic exercise.Results showed that levels in dipper
hypertensives decreased in the day but not in non-dipper hypertensives (Nami, 2000).This
increases obesity risk in non-dipper hypertensives as the renin-angiotensin system activity in
blood pressure​ control increases, causing metabolism dips and weight gain (Whiteman, 2016).
Thus, aerobic exercise has led to weight loss in most but does not lower blood pressure of
patients with non-dipper hypertension, therefore risk of obesity among them remains the same.
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Anaerobic Exercise
Anaerobic exercise has been defined by ACSM as intense physical activity of short duration,
utilizing energy sources by contracting muscles anaerobically.Without oxygen, cells synthesise
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via glycolysis and fermentation.This process produces less ATP
than aerobic exercise (Patel et al, 2017).Anaerobic exercises includes sprinting.In an experiment
conducted by Ballor and Poehlman, people who did anaerobic exercises lost more weight as their
lean body mass (LBM) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) increased compared to those who did
not exercise, showing no changes in their RMR and LBM(Alexander, 2002).For every kilogram
of muscle mass gained from anaerobic exercise, the body burns 21 kcal, causing weight loss,
resulting in an increase in LBM(Strasser, 2010).
Also, resistance training has showed a significant reduction of visceral adipose tissue, actively
burning adipose tissue from the abdominal region, reducing abdominal obesity and benefiting
overall health of an individual as body fat percentage is kept under control.(Strasser, 2010).
However, anaerobic training if done excessively with improper technique can cause
musculoskeletal health-related injuries(Eirik, 2016).
Drugs and its effects on weight loss
Weight Management drugs have existed since the 1920s, helping a lot of people achieve
successful weight loss.However, in recent decades,studies have shown that certain drugs cause
adverse effects on one’s health.(Kang & Park ,2012), casting such drugs in a negative
light.Despite its notoriety, drugs still exist that may cause healthier weight loss.Hence,the role of
drugs in sustaining weight loss in the long run and the adverse health effects would be discussed
in the review.
Orlistat
Orlistat,a reversible lipase inhibitor,prevents dietary fat to be absorbed by 30% through
inhibiting lipase.Due to the inhibition of lipase, the unabsorbed fat is then excreted.When these
fats are unabsorbed, it decreases calorie intake in the body.Therefore,it enables people to lose
weight.The sustainability of Orlistat in a randomised controlled trial in long term(2 years)
management of obesity showed that it minimised weight gain, promoted weight loss and
improved their living qualities.(Stephan,R, et al.,2000).Studies have shown that Obese people
using Orlistat had an improvement in their overall weight status,cardiometabolic health,like
blood glucose levels.This has decreased the risk of lifestyle diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes.
However, Orlistat is also known to have some side effects like Diarrhea, oily feces ,bloating.
These side effects can be alleviated through consuming less fatty foods. Furthermore, it is also
stated that people may not absorb sufficient Fat soluble vitamins,like Vitamin A.This problem
can be countered through consuming multivitamins. Reports have shown that this drug is linked
to rare cases of liver injury. Hypersensitivity may have played a role in such instances. However,
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it has been approved for long-term usage.(National Institutes of Health,2014;Kang & Park
,2012;Erlanger & Henson, 2008;Li, M.-F., & Cheung, B. M. ,2011).
Phentermine
Phentermine ,an appetite suppressant, is approved for people who are aged 16 and above to use
as a short-term treatment (3 months) for obesity.Their hypothalamuses are stimulated, causing
decreased appetite, consuming fewer calories.These effects could be caused by norepinephrine
and dopamine metabolism. Even though this drug is approved as a short-term
treatment,physicians may continue prescribing it if its effective for the patient.If treatment proves
to be ineffective (minimal weight loss) after 4-6 weeks, the drug should be
discontinued.(Erlanger & Henson ,2008).In long-term trials, it has shown to aid in weight
loss.Studies have shown that diabetic,hypertensive patients successfully lost weight through the
use of phentermine diffuse-controlled release (DCR) and there was a decrease in waist
circumference and improvement in LDL-C levels.(Kang & Park,2012).However,despite the
promising benefits shown, Phentermine is linked to cardiovascular side effects,like increased
blood pressure,Tachycardia and should not be consumed by patients with cardiovascular
issues(Erlanger & Henson ,2008)
Sibutramine
Sibutramine ,a serotonin reuptake inhibitor,causes weight loss through maintaining negative
energy balance.According to James,W. P. T., et al., Studies suggest that people have successfully
lost weight over time.However, this study highlights issues concerning the subject’s
cardiovascular health.Thus, people with cardiovascular conditions should not use this drug
Despite such health risks, it is shown to decrease levels of triglycerides, LDL-C.During clinical
trials, Sibutramine resulted in more desirable weight loss results as compared to
Orlistat.(Erlanger & Henson ,2008).However, Orlistat has less severe side effects,making
Orlistat more suitable for long term usage.
Lifestyle Diets and its effects on weight loss
A lifestyle diet is a diet that reflects one’s personal preferences instead of found and proven
scientific principles.This umbrella term includes fad diets, which have been associated with fast
weight loss.However, the question of whether weight loss achieved by following such diets is
sustainable, or short term still remains debatable.In this section,we will look at various of
lifestyle diets and how it affects one's weight loss as well as the sustainability of the weight loss
achieved.
Paleo Diet
The Paleo Diet focuses on unprocessed foods, and based on the foods that were available and
eaten by humans in Paleolithic times.The concept behind the paleo diet is that if humans were
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not consuming a food before modern food processing existed, then humans should not consume
those foods today, as the body is not adapted to them.This diet include mostly meats, seafoods,
vegetables, fruits, nuts, oils in their diet, cutting out grains,dairy,alcohol and processed foods.
A 2016 study by Edith Cowan University showed that in a group of 5 women,one experienced
diarrhoea and groups generally reported higher rates of tiredness and sleeping difficulties
compared to the control group.Due to the fact that this diet requires one to cut out important food
groups,like carbohydrates which are essential for the body to function, weight loss achieved from
this diet is not sustainable.
Raw Food Diet
The concept behind a raw food diet is that cooking above 40°C, destroys nutrients and enzymes
in foods. This diet includes foods such as leafy greens, fruits,sprouted grains and eggs.However,
consuming this diet leads to the cutting out of food groups such as meats and grains,as well as
certain palatable vegetables or more beneficial to the body after cooking.(C.Saxelby 2016).This
diet aids in weight loss due to high consumption of fibre from vegetables and fruits, which
increases satiety, causing one consume less.A raw food diet will definitely help with weight loss,
however,due to the fact that one is limited to few foods, thus,it may not be sustainable.
(T.Crowe., 2016)
Mediterranean Diet
‘The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was defined by Ancel Keys as being low in saturated fat and
high in vegetable oils, observed in Greece and Southern Italy during the 1960s’ (C. Davis et
al.,2015).This lifestyle diet is common in Mediterranean countries and has been associated with
low of LDL-C, reducing risk of heart disease.This diet consists mainly of
grains,vegetables,beans,fruits and nuts along with moderate servings of fish,cheese,olive oil, and
wine and small amounts of red meat.Consumption of fibre from fruits and vegetables increases
satiety, causing one to eat less food. A study in July 2008 for Dietary Intervention Randomized
Controlled Trial Group comparing the low-fat and carbohydrate and Mediterranean-diets showed
that whilst all groups lost weight, participants in this diet test group experienced the greatest
weight loss. This shows that weight loss achieved using this diet is sustainable as there is are no
restrictions of any essential food groups.
Vegetarian Diet
Vegetarian diet is a lifestyle diet followed by vegetarians."A vegetarian is someone who lives on
a diet of grains,seeds,vegetables, fruits, and some other non-animal-based foods with, or without,
dairy products, honey or eggs”(Vegsoc.org., 2018).Some people may be vegetarian for religious
reasons or health reasons.The primary mechanism by which a low-fat,vegan diet leads to body
weight reduction is likely caused by a dietary energy density reduction,due to its low fat and high
fibre content,increasing satiety so people will eat less.“Data from the Adventist Health Study
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have shown that Body Mass Index (BMI) increases as the amount of animal foods in the diet
increases,such that vegans had the lowest BMI”(Crimarco et al., 2017)
Therefore, individuals on a vegetarian diet may be able to consume same volumes of food while
consuming fewer calories, resulting in weight loss with easier maintenance.
Conclusion
In conclusion,we believe that diet combined with anaerobic exercise yields the best results for
weight loss as maintaining a balanced diet provides adequate nutrients.
A lower energy input combined with exercise increases energy output promotes negative energy
balance, decreasing the risk of lifestyle diseases. We suggest following lifestyle diets that are
scientifically proven to promote healthy and sustainable weight loss,like Mediterranean Diet.As
drugs may have an adverse health effects,it is recommended that drugs are only used in extreme
conditions.Orlistat is recommended to be used in such conditions as it has the least severe side
effects.Our study has limitations as we did not evaluate the effects of individual choices on
weight loss, thus further studies can be done.
7
References:
1. Anon, 2016. Healthy Weight. Obesity Prevention Source
2. Cheung, B. M. & Fang Li, M., 2011. Rise and fall of anti-obesity drugs. ​World Journal of
Diabetes, ​2(2), pp. 19-23.
3. Erlanger, S. R. and E. A. Henson (2008). "Classification and Pharmacological
Management of Obesity." P t 33(12): 724-728.
4. Erlanger, S.R. & Henson, E.A., 2008. Advances in pediatrics.
5. James, W. P. T., et al. (2010). "Effect of Sibutramine on Cardiovascular Outcomes in
Overweight and Obese Subjects." New England Journal of Medicine 363(10): 905-917.
4. Kang, J. G. and C.-Y. Park (2012). "Anti-Obesity Drugs: A Review about Their Effects
and Safety." Diabetes Metab J 36(1): 13-25.
5. Kondo, T., Kishi, M., Fushimi, T., Ugajin, S. and Kaga, T. (2009). Vinegar Intake
Reduces Body Weight, Body Fat Mass, and Serum Triglyceride Levels in Obese
Japanese Subjects. ​Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry​, [online] 73(8),
pp.1837-1843. Available at:
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1271/bbb.90231?scroll=top&needAccess=tr
ue [Accessed 26 May 2018].
6. List, F., Plans, M., Sites, P. and Apps, P. (2018). ​The Paleo Diet Defined - The Paleo
Diet​. [online] The Paleo Diet. Available at: https://paleodiet.org/definition/ [Accessed 24
May 2018].
7. Mayo Clinic. (2018). ​Mediterranean diet: A heart-healthy eating plan​. [online] Available
at:
https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/medit
erranean-diet/art-20047801 [Accessed 26 May 2018].
8. National Institutes of Health, 2014. ​LiverTox :Drug Records on Orlistat. ​[Online]
Available at: ​https://livertox.nih.gov/Orlistat.htm
[Accessed 26 May 2018].
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9. Nutrition Science Degree. (2018). ​Top 10 Most Popular Alternative Dietary Lifestyles -
Nutrition Science Degree​. [online] Available at:
https://nutritionsciencedegree.org/popular-alternative-dietary-lifestyles/ [Accessed 26
May 2018].
10. Foo, L.L. et al., 2013. Obesity prevention and management: Singapore's experience.
Freshwater Biology.
11. Osborne, T. (2018). ​Is a raw food diet really more nutritious?​. [online] ABC News.
Available at:
http://www.abc.net.au/news/health/2016-06-07/raw-food-diet-review-does-cooking-destr
oy-nutrients/7484502 [Accessed 25 May 2018].
12. Östman, E., Granfeldt, Y., Persson, L. and Björck, I. (2005). Vinegar supplementation
lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy
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13. "PALEO DIET PROBED", 2016, ​Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, ​vol. 24, no.
3, pp. 21.
14. Turner-McGrievy, G., Barnard, N. and Scialli, A. (2007). A Two-Year Randomized
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15. Turner- McGrievy, G., Mandes, T. and Crimarco, A. (2017). A plant-based diet for
overweight and obesity prevention and treatment. ​Journal of Geriatric Cardiology​,
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https://www.vegsoc.org/definition [Accessed 26 May 2018].
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[online] Available at:
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[Accessed 24 May 2018].
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18. Shai, I., Schwarzfuchs, D., Henkin, Y., Shahar, D., Witkow, S., Greenberg, I., Golan, R.,
Fraser, D., Bolotin, A., Vardi, H., Tangi-Rozental, O., Zuk-Ramot, R., Sarusi, B.,
Brickner, D., Schwartz, Z., Sheiner, E., Marko, R., Katorza, E., Thiery, J., Fiedler, G.,
Blüher, M., Stumvoll, M. and Stampfer, M. (2008). Weight Loss with a
Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. ​New England Journal of Medicine​,
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19. Stephan, R., et al. (2000). "Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Improved
Cardiovascular Risk Factors after 2 Years Treatment with Orlistat for Obesity." Obesity
Research 8(1): 49-61.
Work Distribution
Report Title: ​Evaluation of weight loss management using Lifestyle Diets ,Drugs and Exercise
Class: DNHW/FT/1A/01 Team No.: GROUP 5
Lecturer: MS JOOSA
Names of Team Members Student ID List of sections responsible for writing
(in sequential order)
SIM WEIZHI P1843596 Drugs and its effects on weight loss
LI LIM P1833924 Lifestyle Diets and its effects on weight
loss
LIONEL CHEAH KAI EN P1852972 Introduction
LIM WEI RUI BELINDA P1833883 Exercise and its effects on weight loss
Whole Group Title Page
Acknowledgements
Contents Page
References
10

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