Eun Seo Park
Does intake of calcium and dairy products like milk and cheese, result decreased risk of colorectal cancer? From the four studies talked about below will show that it is moderately convincing to be true.
The cohort study done by Murphy et al., shows that p-trend for total calcium and dairies were below 0.05 except for non-dairy calcium (Murphy et al. 2013). It was a study done for 11 years with huge population over 450k, adjusted over 10 confounding variables to ensure minimum residual confound. To measure the data, it used validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The data is showing that the intake of calcium and dairy food is inversely associated with the colorectal cancer risk.
Another well-constructed cohort study by Larsson et al. also shows a different side of the data. It also used a validated FFQ, to 45k males, adjusted many confounding variables. It shows that calcium and dairy increased the risk of colorectal cancer (Larsson et al. 2006).
Moving on to a different type of study, randomized control study (RCT). There were two studies done by this method. The study done by Karaga et al. did construct a good study by using cross over trial to, cover the low participant amount. But the p-value ended up being way to high making the statistica...