CIS109: Lifespan Human Development
Student: Tanya Joyner
Date: 25th Paenga -Whāwhā 2018
Assignment 2: Attachment Essay
This essay will begin with a brief introduction of the concepts of Carl Rogers- positive regard, Erik Erickson’s -trust v mistrust and John Bowlby’s secure attachment theory. The second part will focus on the importance of these three concepts in infant development and the third part of the essay will examine the implications of the concepts on a developing therapeutic relationship between Counsellor and adult.
Positive regard, is a concept of self-awareness or belief that an individual person is worthy of Mana -respect, Manaaki-care and Aroha- love. The focus is on understanding that an individual is in charge of his or her own lives. The concept, views a total acceptance of the person regardless of their background. In a facilitative role, the client should feel positive regard in order to grow,
Rogers (1980), says, ‘attitude of importance in creating a climate for change is acceptance or caring, or prizing – what I have called “unconditional positive regard”. When the therapist is experiencing a positive, acceptant attitude toward wherever the client is at that moment, therapeutic movement or change is more likely to occur’.
Trust vs mistrust:
In the life of a newborn, there is a need for the child to have trust that the biological parent will meet their basic needs, generally by the birth Mother. Although, this need maybe met by any person whom cares for the basic needs of the infant and establishes a routine of care.
Kail, V. R. & Cavanaugh, C. J. (2004), states…..Erickson, argues that a sense of trust in oneself and others is the foundation of human development. If parents respond to their infants needs consistently, the infant comes to trust and feel secure in the world.
Mistrust, simply is knowing the world is not always a safe place; there are a number of dangerous that parents need to be aware of. Parents of an infant are learning about the child for the first time and may not, know what the infant needs are straight away. Trying to ensure a child is healthy and protected from harm, is also a basic need for an infant. Example of this is, unintentional mistrust, this could happen when the infant least expects it, i.e...Being left alone on the couch and falling before being caught or not getting milk/ food or a bath at the right temperature.
Kail, V. R. & Cavanaugh, C. J. (2004) cites… ‘Erickson sees value in these experiences because infants learn mistrust. With a proper balance of trust and mistrust, infants can acquire hope, which is an openness to new experience tempered by wariness that discomfort or danger may arise’.
Firstly, to understand secure attachment, you need to understand the theory around what is attachment. McLeod (2007) cites … ‘Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form...