Historical Perspective Of Co Operatives In Indian Context

6920 words - 28 pages

Historical Perspective in Indian ContextContentsDevelopment Of Indian Co-operativeRecommendations of Co-operative MovementCo-operation In MaharashtraDevelopment of Indian Co-operativesThe Co-operative Movement, which has an ultimate goal of strengthening the position of economically weaker sections, can make a real contribution towards the progress of national community. Over 96 yrs co-operative activity has been undertaken and since, it got a legal acceptance after the co-operative credit society act was passes in 1904.The main objective was to combat indebtness and provide credit to the agriculturalist. With reference to the agro based of Indian economy the co-operative sector has playe ...view middle of the document...

It is then replaced by Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act 1960 and Rules 1961.The entire Co-operative Movement can be divided in 3 phases:I Period prior to the enactment of the 1st co-operative society act 1904II Period between 1904 - 1951 before the beginning of planning in IndiaIII Growth of co-operatives during the planned period (5 yr. plans)Present SituationPhase I : Co-operative Movement prior to 1904The credit of initiating the co-operative movement as seen earlier goes to the Rochdale Pioneers from England. The policies of organizational setup adopted by them, have survived the test of time and have become the principles of co-operative movement.Co-operation is not new to India, but the versions were different. In ancient India, it was in form of 4 principles like the 'Kula, Gram, Sreni and Jati'.(hierarchy based on units)Kula - FamilyJati - CasteGram - VillageSreni - Classification at different levelsThe Kula was the 1st form of a co-operative activity; it was both a political and socio-economic activity. As the society stabilized and expanded the aspects of economic and social co-operation narrowed to the limits of joint family. Where the land is owned and cultivated commonly and the adult members share the duties of the family and live under one roof. Co-operation at the Gram (village) level emerged after the Kulas were stabilized. The gram sabha was a co-operative engine which undertook, the works for economic and social progress of the village commons such as land, pastures, roads, highways, paths, common gardens, etc.The artisans and cultivators often combine for the purpose of co-operative working and the members jointly undertook, the use of selling of tools and implements of production. The Sreni has been a development of the post Vedic era.The co-operative and economic organization in this time was more of artisans, industrial and handicrafts workers, merchants, traders, bankers, agriculturists, house builders, etc. The Sreni worked basically as bankers and merchants guilds but also extended their role as charitable institutions.The co-operation at Jati level was mainly for achieving social goals such as education, charity, and relief work.Phase II : Co-operative Movement (1904 - 1951)Co-operation became legalized and was introduced as official movement in 1904. This was considered as a turning point in the economic and social history of India. The period between 1904 - 1951 can be studied better if it is divided into the following stages.I. Between 1904 - 19121904 act provided an impetus for organization of primary credit societies and stress was laid on promoting agricultural credit. There were 8187 societies by 1912, which had a membership of 4lakhs and working capital of 3357.7lakhs. One of the major features was that the government was the prime mover of this movement but the credit was marked by insufficiency and delay, and the recoveries were far from satisfactory.The loans system was also defective. Mr. C...


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