This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Historical Perspective Of Co Operatives In Indian Context

6920 words - 28 pages

Historical Perspective in Indian ContextContentsDevelopment Of Indian Co-operativeRecommendations of Co-operative MovementCo-operation In MaharashtraDevelopment of Indian Co-operativesThe Co-operative Movement, which has an ultimate goal of strengthening the position of economically weaker sections, can make a real contribution towards the progress of national community. Over 96 yrs co-operative activity has been undertaken and since, it got a legal acceptance after the co-operative credit society act was passes in 1904.The main objective was to combat indebtness and provide credit to the agriculturalist. With reference to the agro based of Indian economy the co-operative sector has played a ...view middle of the document...

It is then replaced by Maharashtra Co-operative Societies Act 1960 and Rules 1961.The entire Co-operative Movement can be divided in 3 phases:I Period prior to the enactment of the 1st co-operative society act 1904II Period between 1904 - 1951 before the beginning of planning in IndiaIII Growth of co-operatives during the planned period (5 yr. plans)Present SituationPhase I : Co-operative Movement prior to 1904The credit of initiating the co-operative movement as seen earlier goes to the Rochdale Pioneers from England. The policies of organizational setup adopted by them, have survived the test of time and have become the principles of co-operative movement.Co-operation is not new to India, but the versions were different. In ancient India, it was in form of 4 principles like the 'Kula, Gram, Sreni and Jati'.(hierarchy based on units)Kula - FamilyJati - CasteGram - VillageSreni - Classification at different levelsThe Kula was the 1st form of a co-operative activity; it was both a political and socio-economic activity. As the society stabilized and expanded the aspects of economic and social co-operation narrowed to the limits of joint family. Where the land is owned and cultivated commonly and the adult members share the duties of the family and live under one roof. Co-operation at the Gram (village) level emerged after the Kulas were stabilized. The gram sabha was a co-operative engine which undertook, the works for economic and social progress of the village commons such as land, pastures, roads, highways, paths, common gardens, etc.The artisans and cultivators often combine for the purpose of co-operative working and the members jointly undertook, the use of selling of tools and implements of production. The Sreni has been a development of the post Vedic era.The co-operative and economic organization in this time was more of artisans, industrial and handicrafts workers, merchants, traders, bankers, agriculturists, house builders, etc. The Sreni worked basically as bankers and merchants guilds but also extended their role as charitable institutions.The co-operation at Jati level was mainly for achieving social goals such as education, charity, and relief work.Phase II : Co-operative Movement (1904 - 1951)Co-operation became legalized and was introduced as official movement in 1904. This was considered as a turning point in the economic and social history of India. The period between 1904 - 1951 can be studied better if it is divided into the following stages.I. Between 1904 - 19121904 act provided an impetus for organization of primary credit societies and stress was laid on promoting agricultural credit. There were 8187 societies by 1912, which had a membership of 4lakhs and working capital of 3357.7lakhs. One of the major features was that the government was the prime mover of this movement but the credit was marked by insufficiency and delay, and the recoveries were far from satisfactory.The loans system was also defective. Mr. C.S....

Other Essays On Historical Perspective Of Co-Operatives In Indian Context

Biracial Discrimination Essay

337 words - 2 pages accepted in America today than in the past. An account from the 1960's describes a researcher visiting the house of a half Native-American, half African-American woman named Hattie. Of course when the information was taken down, such terms as Indian and Negroe were still in use. The woman described was half Cherokee, but living in an all Negroe community, she lost contact with her Indian family. She was called a half-breed and was described as

Colonization In Africa : How European Government Altered Tribal Life

1033 words - 5 pages In the late 19th century Africa underwent a radical transformation; it was colonized by Europe . Excellent historical context . This was a violent and tragic turning point in African history; the culture of an entire continent was disrupted and in many instances destroyed. There were many motivations for imperialism in the 19 th century, and the consequent "carving up" of Africa . (Brummett 674) Europeans were in search of new goods, trade

Vocabulary For APUSH

251 words - 2 pages Vocabulary Period 3: 1754-1800Chapters 5-10 in American PageantFrench- Indian Fur TradeFrench & Indian WarPontiac's RebellionProclamation of 1763Iroquois ConfederationLittle TurtleStamp ActTownshend ActsBoston MassacreBoston Tea PartyCommittees of CorrespondenceIntolerable ActsSons of LibertyFirst Continental CongressSecond Continental CongressMercy Otis WarrenLetters from a Farmer in PennsylvaniaLoyalistsPatriotsWashington's Farewell

A Guide To Accuracy Of Information

1496 words - 6 pages - reason/purpose of writer in producing source- motive is sometimes indicated by the tone or mood of the source- tone- language/images being used. Ie. Emotional, argumentive, optimisticBias- events in history have more than 1 view or perspective- bias source only gives 1 view where another is just as possible- author has a certain preferenceask-- is the writer an impartial observer or a deeply involved

Iran Report

1112 words - 5 pages States of America to Iran. The Government of Iran is parliament. Parliament is elected officials vote for there leader. The name Iran has been in use natively since the Sassandid period, and came into international use form 1935.Both Persia and Iran are used interchangeable in cultural context. However, Iran is the name used officially impolitic use. It is believed that rice was brought to Iran form the southeast, Asia or the Indian

'the Scope And Focus Of Memory Are Too Intimate For The Grand Sweep Of History,' Do You Agree Or Disagree. Based On Text Fiftieth Gate

291 words - 2 pages explore their history with great detail.Marks change in the way he delivers the history of the holocaust is also influenced by the pain he felt through his parents memory,'alone frieghtened .... I was so scared. But my mother said,'run to judenrat' ....saved my life.' The memory of the survivors gives a unique perspective on the holocaust and the intimacy of such personal memories enriches the event.The biased view of mark and his parents memory does not affect the text as a historical source as it is written from the perspective of jewish survivors as they were the largest victims of the holocaust.

Describe The Settlement Of The Western Hemisphere From The Perspective Of A Native American

829 words - 4 pages traditional ways of life so native people had to find new ways to survive. According to Historian James Merrell," The Indians found themselves living in a world that from their perspective was just as "new "as that which greeted the European invaders" (Divine 9).Indian communities felt the need to develop different strategies for dealing with the European settlers. Some chose to resist, some fled their homelands, and some didn't compromise. "Cultural


304 words - 2 pages REPORT HISTORICAL COMMITTEE 11-1-01 SIGNED UP 27 NEW MEMBERS AT POND CREEK REUNION IN OCTOBER.HAVING ITEM PUBLISHED ON THE POST REUNION LETTER TO LET THOSE WHO DIDN'T SIGN UP AS A MEMBER HOW TO JOIN OUR ORGANIZATION AND SEND INFORMATION.Have talked with Kathleen Jones Carter - daughter of Albert Jones, who was general manager of Octavia J. Coal Company. She is very interested in helping us - plans to donate her father's mining hat to the museum

My Ride

318 words - 2 pages other things, the structure of your argument. Successful essays will: 9 Demonstrate an awareness of audience, structure, and the key elements of definitional arguments as discussed in your textbook. 9 Be in MLA format 9 Provide an interesting title, a "gripping" introduction, and a thoughtful claim 9 Have fully developed body paragraphs that lead from one to the next in a logical manner 9 Provide historical, cultural, and/or social context as


1811 words - 8 pages "May God deny you peace, but grant you glory, gentlemen, to the bulls" (pg. 226). Throughout Mexican history, the Spanish have been shown to be preoccupied with death and the thrill of risking their own natural lives. "Olé!" shouted the crowd as the great bull veered passed the stumbling Matador. "Olé!" everyone shouted again as the massive bull was brought back. Historical and Narratological aspects of "Mexico" create a novel in

Response To Dharmasiri's "A Buddhist Critique"

598 words - 3 pages To utilize a Buddhist perspective and to quote the Buddha for the purpose of constructing an evaluation of theism seems to me singularly inappropriate, if only for the mere fact that these Buddhist beliefs are taken out of context. Early in "A Buddhist Critique," the author, Gunapala Dharmasiri, states, "it is the context that gives religious statements their meaning" (Kessler 1999, p.116). However, contrary to this professed belief, he

Similar Papers

This Essay Discusses The Assumption, Made In The Crito, That "One Should Never Do Wrong In Return" Within The Context Of Civil Disobedience

869 words - 4 pages The topic I have chosen to discuss is as follows: Examine the assumption, made in the Crito, that "one should never do wrong in return, nor injure any person, whatever injury one has suffered at his hands" within the context of civil disobedience. I will show how civil disobedience must incorporate pointing out the weaknesses of society, while showing respect for the rest of society and its authorities.Civil disobedience is disobeying the unjust

"Abnormal Psychology" This Is An Essay On The Film 'a Beautiful Mind' Discussing Whether The Ideas And Depictions Of Schizophrenia Were Accurate And Relevant To The Context In Which The Film Was...

881 words - 4 pages to better suit production, which do not necessarily reflect the real life scenario.A Beautiful Mind is set in the time period between 1947-94. The context in which is film is set is of much relevance. In 1959 psychiatrist Kurt Schneider, came out with his First Rank Symptoms, a group of symptoms he proposed would diagnose schizophrenia. This is relevant because it is right during the time in which the film is set. His symptoms included auditory

This Essay Tells What Is True And What Is False In The Movie Braveheart. So It Tells The Historical Accuracy Of The Film

545 words - 3 pages Very rarely in a historically based film is every action fact but rather there is a mix of fact and fiction in the film. Braveheart follows this mold since it is a historically based film that includes fiction intertwined with true history. These fictious additions to the film make it a better film cinematically but can make the film too over the top, which would take away from the film. Braveheart is able to tell the true tale of William

Indentured Servitude Essay

968 words - 4 pages Most historians believe that the first Africans to arrive in America in 1619 were the indentured servants. The author of Beneficiaries of Catastrophe: The English Colonies in America demonstrates a far different perspective about the first Africans to arrive in America. This author believes that the first Africans to arrive in America were treated despicably and were very beneficial to the colonists in work labor; and through historical data and