Hypertrophy Caused By Diabetes - Econference Assignment

1638 words - 7 pages

Course Code BIOL1040
Course Title Cells to Organisms
Assignment Title Econference 2019

Diseases of the Endocrine System: Biology and Function
The Potential Role of Adiponectin in Regulating Myocardial
Hypertrophy caused by Diabetes

The Future of Diabetes Treatment
Rapid societal modernisation in peoples life styles has triggered the major public health
problem of diabetes, which has caused patients other associated health issues such as
myocardial hypertrophy (Achari & Jain, 2017). Currently the leading cause of death for people
with diabetes, myocardial hypertrophy is a serious complication that can occur due to
hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress, which may eventually progress to cardiac failure (Li
et al., 2015). Recent studies have shown that Adiponectin, a protein hormone produced by
adipose tissue in the body, has a potential role in regulating cardioprotective signalling
pathways and that deficiency in adiponectin has shown to aggravate myocardial hypertrophy
(Li et al., 2015). Hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress has been suggested as a cause for
reduction in Adiponectin levels, with the interaction causing a downregulation of Adiponectin
levels and impairment of cardioprotective Adiponectin pathways (Li et al., 2015). This process
occurs by deactivation of the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Brahma-
related gene 1 (Brg1), which leads to a reduction in Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and in-turn
increased oxidative stress (Li et al., 2015). Reduction in Adiponectin has also shown to promote
insulin resistance due to the interaction between Adiponectin and Adiponectin receptor 1
(AdipoR1) (Li et al., 2014). As an effect of diabetes, endogenous Adiponectin production may
be impaired which leads to downregulation of Adiponectin and AdipoR1 expression, and thus
impairment in their function (Li et al., 2014). Hence, further research into the role that
Adiponectin plays may lead to possible treatments that could prevent the progression or
development of diabetic myocardial hypertrophy.

Testing the Treatment
A recent study by Li et al. (2015) investigated the effect of reduced Adiponectin on the
development of diabetic cardiomyopathy associated with impairment of HO-1 expression, and
whether supplementation of Adiponectin would remedy activation of HO-1 induction, using
Brg1 and Nrf2 within diabetics. The experiment utilised control and streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats to test the effect of Adiponectin reduction by treating some of the rats with
Adiponectin adenovirus three weeks after induction of diabetes and then terminating and
examining them one week later. Analysis of the rat hearts using biochemical and histological
assays showed that the diabetic rats had developed cardiac hypertrophy. Isolated
cardiomyocytes from the diabetic rat hearts, were cultured and supplemented with
recombined globular Adiponectin. Studies on Adiponectin have shown its consistent r...

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