Blood Pressure During And After Sleeping Assignment

1580 words - 7 pages

Daniel Harrison
Blood Pressure (Average)
Heart rate (bpm)
Rest
Systolic
Diastolic
79
123
73
After exercise
146
73
126
Exercise
During exercise blood pressure increases in order to push oxygenated blood throughout the body and to the working muscles and to meet the demands of the working muscles. The diastolic is not affected as this is the pressure when the heart is at rest, which is not affected during exercise. Your heart rate also increases during exercise as the heart needs to pump at a faster rate in order to get a higher volume of oxygenated blood around the body and to the working muscles. This so they can then respire producing energy they need to be able to complete the activity. The Heart is responsible for the increased heart rate and blood pressure during exercise, this because when there is a higher demand for oxygen during exercise in order for respiration to occur in cells for that extra energy required during exercise, the hearts muscle tissue then begins to contract at a higher rate on order to push the blood around the body through the blood vessels at a much faster rate, ensuring that oxygen needed is carried to the cells through the blood stream in the blood vessels. When the heart contracts the ventricles are responsible for the increased pressure as this part of the heart pushes the oxygenated blood with more force, from out the bottom of the heart and to the rest of the body. This increased force from the hearts muscles tissue also results in the blood pressure to increase as a greater force is being exerted from the heart. The nervous system is responsible for detecting when the there is a greater need for oxygen during exercise and then the heart rate begins to increase as the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, activated through exercise and forms of physical activity, results in the increase of heart rate.
Sleeping
Blood Pressure (Average)
Heart rate (bpm)
Rest
Systolic
Diastolic
79
123
70
After Sleeping
106
61
73
After Sleeping on average your blood pressure decreases due to the heart not needed to pump as much blood around the body as the body cells don’t need the same amount of energy when the body is at rest and slightly moving. As a result, less force will be needed decreasing the pressure of the blood. On average the heart rate also decreased after sleeping as less oxygenated blood was needed by the body cells for respiration, so the heart doesn’t need to pump as fast as when the heart is at rest. When the heart is at rest during sleeping the heart muscle tissue contracts at a much lower rate and with less force as the demand for oxygen is at a minimum. The parasympathetic nervous system is activated by Acetylcholine which is a neurotransmitter that sends signals to other cells. The activation of this system then results in the lowered heart rate as this is responsible for lowering the heart rate and carrying out the background beating while someone is asleep. The medulla in the brain receives constant information from around the body and decides whether to activate the parasympathetic system which will bring the heart rate down or to activate the sympathetic system to increase the heart rate, through the use of hormones and neurotransmitters.
Eating
Blood Pressure (Average)
Heart rate (bpm)
Rest
Systolic
Diastolic
82
126
69
After Eating
112
69
78
On average the blood pressure decreased, after eating your heart rate and blood pressure should increase as it puts demands on the heart similar to exercise, this could be due to the amount of and different food the class ate. As different foods contain different things having different effects on your blood pressure. Also the resting heart rate could have also been affected by work before it was taken so it could have been artificially increased. The heart rate also decreased on average this could be due to the same reason as the decrease in blood pressure. After eating a meal, a person's heart rate should increase, this due to the constant eating and swallowing of food during the meal, this activates the sympathetic nervous system resulting in the increase of heart rate as the muscles that are responsible for chewing and swallowing food need energy. Additionally, during eating and digestion hormones are released that will increase your heart rate. Adding to this, most food will contain some form of fats within them and when consumed can result in the increase in heart rate, this can be due to the fats affecting the lining of the arteries from functioning properly. Sugars within foods can also boost insulin levels, leading to the increase in heart rate as this prevents the relaxation of the hearts arteries. Caffeine could also be in some food consumed which is a stimulant which will affect a person's heart rate. When consuming a meal there is an increase in metabolism and blood flow to the digestion tract which will increase the heart rate. This due to there being a greater demand for oxygen in the cells of organs within the digestive system, in order for them to respire and produce energy for them to carry out their functions of digesting food. For example, the muscle tissue in the stomach requires energy to be able to churn the food within it, the more food in the stomach the energy it will need to be able to churn and break the food down, therefore there is more oxygen needed by the cells, resulting in the increased demand for oxygenated blood and the hearts muscle tissue has to contact harder and faster for it to ensure that the oxygen is carried to them cells through the blood stream. The hearts ventricles is where the oxygenated blood is pumped with a higher amount of force up out of the heart to the required cells during digestion, leading to an increase in blood pressure and heart rate after eating.
Task 2
Multicellular organisms need to have transport systems in order to be able to distribute important and useful substances around the organism. Mass transport systems are needed in multicellular organisms because diffusion is too slow, some cells are deep inside the body, which means there is a big distance between the cell and the outside environment. Two main transport system in a multicellular organism is the respiratory system and the circulatory system, this is very important to help provide the body with oxygen for energy.
The respiratory system begins with the body breathing in air through the mouth which passes through down the trachea into the specialised exchange organ of the lungs. The lungs are located in the centre of the chest protected and surrounded by a rib cage. When the air containing oxygen from the outside air enters the lungs, the alveoli fill and the oxygen diffuses from the alveoli across to the blood stream. The red blood cells then become oxygenated and they then go back through the veins to the hearts atrias, to be then pumped around the body to the muscles for respiration. The heart is located also in the centre of the chest, close to the lungs and has the important function of pumping blood around the whole body and to and from the lungs. When the oxygenated blood reaches the muscles the oxygen then diffuses across to the muscles for respiration to take place and for energy to be produced for functions such as movement.
Respiration, produces a waste product of carbon dioxide, as the equation for respiration is: glucose + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide + (energy), this carbon dioxide then needs to be removed from the body, this carbon dioxide diffuses back into the blood stream and his carried away from the muscles with the deoxygenated blood. The deoxygenated blood then makes its way back to the heart through the veins and enters the right side of the heart via the vena cava. This deoxygenated blood is then pumped back to the lungs where the carbon dioxide is diffused back into the lungs for it to be breathed out back into the air, some H2O produced during respiration is also breathed out during this process.
The lymphatic system in the body filters and cleans foreign bodies around the body, for example bacteria, it is able to do this as it contains a lot of white blood cells which are antibodies in the body. This is from excess tissue fluid from capillary beds that drains into the lymphatic system, as one the lymphatic systems functions are to remove excess fluids from body tissues. It then returns the fluid back in to the circulatory system. The lymph fluid is transported through the body through vessels throughout the body. Lymph tissue is held within organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. Another important function of the lymphatic systems is the absorption of fatty acids and the resulting transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system. Urea is a metabolite of amino acids as the ammonia produced is converted by the liver into urea. This urea is then transported in the bloodstream to the kidneys which contain many nephrons which remove any waste, before reabsorbing any substances the body needs. The waste is then stored in the bladder along with water and other waste products and then excreted out of the body in the form of urine.

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