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It was in 1883 when Osborne Reynolds, a famous scientist and engineer tried to experiment on the relationship between the stability of fluid motion and the transition to turbulence. His final apparatus consisted of a glass-sided tank, 6 feet long, 18 inches deep and 18 inches wide. Inside it was a glass tube with `a trumpet mouth of varnished wood, great care being taken to make the surface of the wood continuous with that of the glass'. On the right-hand side, the tube was connected to an iron pipe equipped with a valve which could be controlled by means of a long lever. On the left-hand side is the device for introducing a streak of dye into the trumpet, while a float and dial indicated
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Stanford Prison Experiment 6The Stanford Prison ExperimentYour NameInstructors NameCourse NameDue DateINTRODUCTIONUnderstanding human beings, their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors has always been a fascination of society. While human beings, as animals, are dependent upon a certain number of biological imperatives; the most basic needs, wants, and desires. Psychology looks not solely at the physical but the psyche of human beings. They seek to understand why some people react differently to differing situations and are some behaviors able to be triggered based on a scenario or created environment. Psychology has always simulated environments in order to gauge people's responses or to see
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phenomena, or to predict quantitatively the results of new observations.4. Performance of experimental tests of the predictions by several independent experimenters and properly performed experiments.The roles of observation and experiment are meant for scientists to sit back and watch the thing the want to experiment (observe it over a period of time) and then make an experiment to see if their hypothesis was, what they though it would be. No one can just state that their idea is true with out observing and experimenting because there is the possibility that it is not accurate. Scientific law is a statement of fact that tries to explain why everything is the way it is. It must be use universally
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The aim of this experiment is to show that mass is conserved during a chemical reaction.
The Law of Conservation of Mass, established in 1789 by French Chemist Antoine Lavoisier, states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in any ordinary chemical reaction. Or more simply, the mass of products by a chemical reaction is always equal to the mass of the reactants. (E, Durnford
The reaction between potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate under room temperature and atmospheric pressure results with a yellow precipitate. This reaction can be expressed by the equation: 2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
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Resistance in a wirePlanning -The resistance of a wire can be affected by certain factors:Length of wireCross sectional arearesistivity (type of metal)Type of wireTemperatureI chose to investigate how length affects the resistance in a wire. This means that the other factors (variables) must be controlled. This means I must keep the same type of wire, the same material of wire (a preliminary experiment will help determine this), and the same cross sectional area and maintain a constant temperature of the wire as any increase in temperature increases resistance. These factors must me kept controlled to ensure a fair test.Preliminary ExperimentI conducted a preliminary experiment to determine
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1.Problem / PurposeThe purpose of this experiment is to investigate the properties of an enzyme - substrate reaction2.HypothesisHydrogen peroxide is a very reactive compound that can be used for a variety of reactions including bleaching and disinfecting minor wounds. Acting as an oxidizing agent, it is also toxic to cells, hence its value as a disinfecting agent that disrupts the metabolism of bacteria. Our body cells and those of many other animals contain an enzyme called catalase that accelerates the conversion of toxic hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas.In this experiment, if the concentration of the enzyme is increased, then the reaction will proceed faster and if the
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ligands that inhibit ribonuclease H activity associated with the HIV-1 RT. With SELEX scientists have been able to isolate oligonucleotide sequences, which are emerging as a class of molecules that fight antibodies. Many of the oligonucleotides selectively inhibit the DNA polymerase actively. Most of the compounds inhibiting the HIV-1 work by inhibiting the DNA polymerase function on the RT. Some of these compounds are AZT, ddI, ddC, and nevirapine. In the experiment that they carried out they found that the molecules that they chose in this experiment do not share features with the DNA aptamers previously isolated against the HIV-1 RT. The aptamers were predicted to form pseudoknots
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; Materials:1000 mL glass beaker, tap water, 0 to 110°C-glass tube thermometer, ice cubes, stop watch, Voltmeter (0-20 V), Ammeter(0-2 A), NiCr wire, Crocodile Clips, digital scaleProcedure:i) Assemble the apparatus as show in the diagram. Heat is applied by adding energy to the system.ii) Put a hand full of ice into the beaker and fill up with water. Mix significantly until the change becomes insignificant. Measure the mass of the water (total mass - mass of empty beaker). Read of voltmeter and ammeter, readings should stay constant. Do NOT add additional energy at any point during the experiment. Leave the beaker on the scale, since we are going to read off the mass of the
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Aim:Do people in all cultures perceive pictures in the same way, and if they do, can we regard pictures as a universal language.Method:Review article investigating the differences between cultures in the way they understand pictures.Sample:Adults and children from an African country.Children from a school in Zambia.Procedure:African children were shown pictures which contained different depth cues. These included familiar size, overlap and perspective drawings. They were asked 'What do you see? And other questions relevant to the pictures and the study. The questions were asked in the subjects' native language.Another experiment involved Zambian schoolchildren copying a straightforward
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that is abundant in warmth and light to enable the flies to reproduce effectively. Another hypothesis on the reaction of flesh flies to the different wavelengths of light is that the flesh flies will prefer green light over the red and blue. The reason this was hypothesized was because green appears to be the darkest and warmest color and the color to absorb light the fastest which will allow it to become warmer in a smaller amount of time as opposed to red and blue.Materials and Methods: The materials and methods used to perform the experiments to test the hypothesis are stated as follows. For the first experiment dealing exclusively with white light, a sample of ten larvae were used
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Introduction:Plant hormones and growth regulators are chemicals that affect flowering, aging, root growth, killing of leaves, promotion of stem elongation, color enhancement of fruit, prevention of leafing, and many other conditions. Very small concentrations of these substances produce major growth changes. All plants produce hormones naturally, and growth regulators can be applied by people to are applied to plants by people. Plant growth regulators may be synthetic compounds that mimic naturally occurring plant hormones, or they may be natural hormones that were extracted from plant tissue. In our plant growth experiment growth stimulants and growth inhibitors were used. Ideally the
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IntroductionI am going to investigate how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction between the hydrogen peroxide, and it's enzyme, catalase, which is found in yeast. There are many other factors which will affect the speed with which this reaction can take place.These include;-The concentration of the substrate (Hydrogen peroxide)-The concentration of the yeast solution-The temperature of both the substrate and of the yeast solution-The ph of the substrate.Key FactorI am investigating the effect on the speed of the reaction of the concentration of the substrate in this experiment. I will do this by changing the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide, and measuring
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Osmosis & Diffusion Lab - Dialysis TubingBackgroundThe movement of molecules through a cell membrane is termed osmosis or diffusion. Such movement is principally possible because nutritive molecules are smaller than membrane micropores. If the molecules are too large, no molecular transfer, or diffusion occur.Thus, some membranes may transmit selectively and are termed semi-permeable membranes. In the following experiment, cellophane dialysis tubing serves as an excellent representation of the cell membrane. The enclosed tube may, for the purpose of this experiment, be considered a single living cell in greatly enlarged form.MaterialsGlucose Solution, Starch Solution, Iodine Solution
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Euglena Experiment Biology 101 Euglena are one-celled organisms in the Protista kingdom. They are usually photosynthetic autotrophs but they have the ability to live as heterotrophs b y ingesting food. They do this when photosynthesis is not possible. Euglena are highly motile and reproduce rapidly. In this experiment I intend to collect enough data to back up my hypothesis. My hypothesis is that the Euglena are attracted to darkness. The material that I used were a microscope, a clean glass slide, a cover slip, a small dish filled with water, a piece of construction paper, a colony of Euglena and a dropper.First I prepared my microscope by placing the small clear glass dish
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while the cell does not swell and stops increasing in size.Preliminary WorkFor my preliminary work I used a cork borer of 10mm width, to cut three chips from a single potato. I got them to be 55mm in length and the average mass of the three chips was about 5.7 grams, also the width of each potato chip was 10mm. I put the potato on a white tile so it didn't damage the table.To begin with I got three cups. The first one I filled it with 100ml of distilled water, the second, I filled with 50ml of distilled water and 50ml of Sodium Chloride and the third, I filled with 100ml of Sodium Chloride. The concentration of the Sodium Chloride stayed the same in each cup and experiment, which was 1 molar
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40 37 34 30Day 13 41 39 36 31Day 14 42 41 38 34Picture taken of internally grown plant on day 7Picture taken of externally grown plant on day 7Picture taken of internally gown plant on day 14Picture taken of externally grown plant on day 14Discussion:In the hypothesis leading up to carrying out the experiment I assumed that the seeds that were grown externally would grow more successfully than those which were internally grown due to the fact that its exposure to day/night length, natural sunlight, rain and temperature would play a more significant part to this growth.However, to my surprise the
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).Rationale:From these experiments, it can be interpreted that conditions and the experimenter can affect the child's competence at conservation tasks, in particular mass and volume. I will be emulating the Samuel and Bryant (1984) experiment, in order to find out which level of conservation is reached first. Therefore to investigate whether mass or water is conserved first within the age range 4.6-6.6, I will replicate the conditions from Samuel and Bryant's experiment, in that I will only ask one question. I predict that more 5.6-6.6 year olds will be able to conserve both liquid and/or mass than 4.6-5.6 year olds.Aim:To investigate whether children within the ages of 4.6-6.6 (4 years and 6 months
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------------------- = 5m/s.0116Calculating the TE of the small piece of PVC pipe as it passes through the photo gate.PE=mgh=(.0116kg)(9.81N/kg)(.266m)=0.030JKE=1/2mv"=1/2(.0116kg)(5m/s)"=0.145JTE=PE+KE=0.175JCalculating the difference in TE between the top of the tube and the photo gate.212J-.175J=.037J.175J-------- = 83%.212J100%-83%=17%This shows that we incurred a loss of 17% of the TE between the drop of the small piece of PVC pipe and it passing through the photo gate.Conclusions/Sources of ErrorWe found that the experiment was not perfect but the formula does seem to be accurate. Our groups experiment showed a 17% loss in energy between our original total energy calculation at the top of the
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different kinds of Evolution. Chemical Evolution, Cosmic Evolution, Geological Evolution, and Micro and Macroevolution. Those last two I already talked about. The theory of Chemical Evolution is that we all came from amino acids. They did an experiment about it, proving their theory right. But there were some problems. In the experiment it had a lack of oxygen because it wouldn't work when oxygen was present, so they think that it happened underwater. That doesn't work either. There are two different types of amino acids, right and left handed ones. Right-handed ones are deadly, but left-handed ones are the ones we all have. But, in his experiment, they came out fifty percent right-handed, and
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George Westinghouse, Jr., was the son of a man who made farm machinery in New York. Today George is known for being one of the most industrious inventors that ever lived. He helped continue the Industrial Revolution with his determined attitude towards resolving social and commercial difficulties. George's creations changed society's life. It affected the economy and how one travels.On October 6, 1846 Westinghouse was born in Central Bridge, New York. From an early age, he had a curious mind and what better to test his creativity in his father's shop. Over a period of time when he was asked to cut some pipe, George started to experiment and in a result he designed a powered device that
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Gandhiji Experiment with SatyagrahaChamparan Satyagraha (1917).Mahatama Gandhi began his experiments with Satyagraha at a small scale at Champaran in Bihar in 1917. Here, the European indigo planters used to be very oppressive. The brunt of their oppression used to fall directly on the plantation workers. Besides, the planters were forcing the peasants to cultivate indigo in at least 3/20 parts of their land and also to sell their products at a very low price. All such harassment meted out to them has found vivid description in Tarashankar Bandhopathyay's novel Neel Darpan. These distressed indigo farmers had been greatly impressed by Mahatma Gandhi's successful movements in South Africa
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Society. After this he made many reports about heat and other energy forms. Joule is recognized for the cooling effect that occurs when a gas is rapidly expanded, used in refrigeration. Also, in 1850, he discovered the equivalence between mechanical work and amounts of heat in his well known "paddle-wheel experiment". Not only was James Joule a researcher, but an inventor. Many things he discovered go into new technologies and devices today. Today, he is recognized for electrical welding and the displacement pump. Towards the end of his life, around 1875, he ran out of money doing his experiments, because he paid for most of them. Shortly after that, he became ill and died. In his honor, a unit of energy, the Joule, was named after him.
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Danielle NaserProfessor Jennifer GrahamNovember 5,2014Lab 5Phenol-Red Carbohydrate Fermentation BrothsIntroduction-The main purpose for this lab experiment was to distinguish the ability of microorganisms to degrade and ferment carbohydrates with the production of acid and gas. This experiment also helped to understand the differences between cellular respiration and fermentation. Fermentation is a metabolic process performed by almost all types of bacteria. This will result in the production of ATP, the ultimate energy source of the organism. This will happen either in the presence of absence of atmospheric oxygen. The carbohydrate test is used for the fermentation of lactose, sucrose, and
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polymer glowing. Curious and eager to find out more about the behavior of the polymers, another experiment was conducted with elastomers, a synthetic or natural polymer having elastic properties, such as rubber. With this testing, elastomers underwent a series of compressions, increasing the number of compressions each time, thinning out elastomer to paper thin in the hopes that it would reform to its original shape. Throughout the whole experimental process, the team discovered that the elastomers bounced back to its original shape with only cosmetic damages. From here, they applied this knowledge to the world. Testing with rubber polymers, the students has discovered that once the rubber has been compressed in shoes, the polymers stop supporting the joints. This signals that the shows are worn out.
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measuring the amount of remaining substrate, a rate of reaction can be calculated. And that is what the experiment boils down to, figuring out the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction. I predict that the rate for reaction will remain fairly constant over time.牋牋牋牋Materials- 路 Burette 牋牋牋牋路 2% KmnO4 牋牋牋牋 牋牋牋牋路 1M H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid) 牋牋牋牋路 H2O (Water) 牋牋牋牋路 Potato 牋牋牋牋路 1.5% H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) 牋牋牋牋路 Catalase 牋
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dm3) suspended freely over water and counterbalanced so that gas passed in or drawn out makes the chamber rise or fall. You can make a permanent record of the movements of the chamber either by attaching a pen to it and allowing it to write on a drum revolving slowly (kymograph) or by attaching a motion sensor which will convert movement into electronic signals that are then interpreted by your data logging software.This typical type of spirometer consists of a Perspex lid enclosing the spirometer chamber, hinged over a tank of water. This chamber is connected to the person taking part in the experiment via an interchangeable mouthpiece and flexible tubing. As breathing proceeds, the lid
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Testing the law of reflection: The angle of incidence = the angle of reflection.Aim. The aim of this experiment was to test the law of reflection: the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. This was done by projecting a ray of light at a flat mirror (ray of incidence) and measuring the angle made by the reflected ray (ray of reflection) and the normal. If the law of reflection is correct the angle between the normal and the ray of incidence and the angle between the normal and the ray of reflection should be the same.Hypothesis. It is predicted that the angle of incidence will equal the angle of reflection no matter what angle we change the ray of incidence to hit the mirror
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the cycle of impulses the brain gets and sends with the sensation receptors. The patellar tendon reflex is a well-known reflex administered by most physicians, and the choice for the reflex experiment.The experiment will compare reflexes in normal, relaxed conditions to those while applying the Jendrassik maneuver. This maneuver, done by clasping one's hands together and trying to pull their arms apart without undoing the clasp, has been grouped in past research with the patellar tendon reflex (Burke et al. 1996).The localization and relative size of receptive fields and adaptation of sensations are also explored in this experiment. Concerning temperature adaptation, the effects of both warm
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for their research.In an article written by Nigel Thomas and Claire O'Kane, the two psychologists discussed children's behavior. They studied what happens when a child has to make a decision and also how they react when an adult talks to them about the way they felt. In Thomas and O'Kane's experiment, children ages 8-12 were used as the subjects to gain data and all the information they could find. The research methods used here were experiments and case studies. Experiments and case studies can be very useful to examine the behavior and mental processes associated with a specific person or situation. In this case, it is the children being examined.Another possible way to do research is to do
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active smokers were faster than those who weredeprived from smoking. In the third test, subjects were required to memorize a sequence of letters or numbers, and to respond when they observed the sequence among flashed groupings on the screen. The purpose of this experiment was to test short-term memory: nonsmokers again ranked highest, however, deprived smokers defeated the active smokers. Subjects were required to read a passage and then answer questions about it in the fourth test. 'Nonsmokers remembered 19 percent more of the most important information than active smokers, and deprived smokers bested their counterparts who had smoked a cigarette just before testing. Active smokers tended not
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The objectives of this experiment are to conduct the preparation of simple organic compound (aspirin), perform recrystallisation to purify the compound using normal filtration and reinforce the skill of determinating melting point of recrystallised compound.In order to prepare acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), salicylic acid is firstly weighed and acetic anhydride is followed to be added. It is then mixed with a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. The mixture is heated until it has completely reacted. After that, distilled water is cautiously added when it is still hot. Additional cold water is then added and the mixture is stirred and rubbed. Suction filtration is carried out to
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with missing responses is discarded, the results may be highly inaccurate because it may appear that the same type of people were unable to answer the same question. The respondents may not be able to answer because "unfamiliarity, fatigue, boredom, faulty recall, question content or format" (Malhotra 91).In case of the projective techniques the quality depends highly on the interpretation of the results however there is very high risk that that data will be biased.The causal research involves experimentation. The data during the experiment should be characterized by external and internal validity. If the researcher is unable to control the extraneous variables (variables that affect test
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of the anode in the electrolytic cell)Control variableTemperature of the liquids used in the experiment (room temperature)Time of the process to measure the amount of H2 produced. (use a stopwatch to keep the time constant to 5 minutes)Concentration of the electrolyte (0.25M)Volume of the electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and the measuring cylinder. (400ml)Equipment used for each trial.MaterialCell battery (one)Beaker (one 1000ml)Measuring cylinder (one 50ml)Electrical conductors (two wires)Electrolyte (HCl 0.25M 400ml×3, 50ml×3)Electrode (copper zinc)StopwatchMethodConnect the electrical conductors to the cell battery and the electrode.Place 400ml of HCl into a clean 1000ml
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Presentation on Light and dark grown plants (leaves) Hypothesis: Hypothesis states that a plant grown in the dark will develop differently from plants grown in the dark, individual parts will develop faster/slower depending on its need for light and its function.Predictions: We predicted that the plants in the dark would have smaller less developed leaves due to the fact that the lack of light would make the leaves useless. The plants grown in the light however would develop normal and would have much larger leaves, as they would be their primary source of food through photosynthesis.Results: The results of the experiment showed that the plants grown in the light had larger leaves compared
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It all began in 1916 where Albert Einstein laid the foundation for the invention of the laser and the maser, in a ground-breaking experiment involving Max Planck's law of radiation based on the concepts of spontaneous and induced emission. The theory was forgotten until after World War II.It wasn't till 1953, Charles H. Townes, James P. Gordon and Herbert J. Zeiger produced the first maser, a device operating on similar principles to the laser, but producing microwave rather than optical radiation.In 1958, Aleksandr Prokhorov proposed an open resonator which became an important part of future lasers. The first introduction of the term "laser" to the public was in Gould's 1959 paper "The
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The purpose of the experiment is to find out which of the two circuits (series and parallel) is the brightest, dimmest, and why, and to identify the direction of the electric flow.
3 D Batteries, 4 bulbs, 8 wires, and 1 switch
Prepare the materials.
Connect four bulbs in sockets with a switch and 3 D batteries firmly connected together top to bottom.
Test the switch, open and close.
The bulbs should light up.
Do the same for parallel circuit, but instead of connecting the bulbs in sockets, connect the wires from the batteries to the 1st bulb and 1st bulb to the next bulb and so on.
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The series circuit was the dimmest and parallel circuit was the brightest of the two. For the parallel circuit on bulb was moved, but that didn't change the brighten of the bulb.
We had to calculate the voltage of 4 bulbs.
1 bulb = .2 watts
4 bulbs = .8 watts
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psychologists were apt to prove that psychology was a meticulous and accurate science hence the behaviorist movement subjugated psychology and urged the researchers to study and experiment only observable, measurable and calculable behaviors.
During this time, an American psychologist by the name of Harry Harlow, became interested in a field of study, a behavior which is not so easy to compute, quantify and measure. He became interested in "Love".
Harry Harlow carried out a series of contentious experiments in the 1960s on maternal deficiency in rhesus monkeys. These were landmarks not only in primatology, but in the surfacing science of affection, connection and
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1. AbstractThis experiment implemented a Friedel-Crafts acylation in order to acylate anisole with acetic anhydride in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride and dichloromethane solvent. The acylation produced para- Methoxyacetophenone. The experiment implemented gentle reflux, extraction, rotovap, and H1 NMR/ IR spectrum analysis. The experiment yielded an oily, clear substance weighing 0.221 grams (14.7% recovery). The H1 NMR spectrum showed a 1:1 ratio between Ha and Hd, verifying the reaction took place; there were hydrogens present from both anisole and acetic anhydride in para- Methoxyacetophenone (methoxy and acyl group, respectively). The H1 NMR also showed only two types of
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modify the final experiment to overcome any practical difficulties.The diagrams below shows the setup of the apparatus in our trials, to find out the effect of temperature, Carbon Dioxide and light.The rate of photosynthesis was measured by counting the number of oxygen bubbles released per minute inside the test tube.In the first week of preliminary trials, we carried out the effect of water temperature on photosynthesis. The method is as follows: We had five different water baths, all the water baths had five different temperatures, these temperatures were, 10C, 100C, 220C, 370C & 450C. We collected the Elodea pondweed and submerged it with the different water temperatures and collected the
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language. "The major distinction between the preoperational stage and the sensorimotor stage is the degree of development and use of internal images and symbols" (Dworetzky, 1991). Piaget's research indicated that the preoperational child had definite limitations on their reasoning skills. These limitations was demonstrated by a young child's performance in an experiment conducted by Piaget called the conservation task. "Conservation, as Piaget defined it, simply means that any quantity- number, volume, length, weight - remains the same despite physical changes in the arrangement of an object or objects" (Crider, Goethals, Kavanagh & Solomon, 1989).In Piaget's experiment a child was
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my experiment, the Kroger Shopping center on Carpenter Road. My victims were random people walking in and out of the stores. I was dressed in jeans, and a tee shirt. Nothing out of the ordinary, I could have been dressed worse. My first victim was an older gentleman, who looked uncomfortable walking along. I approached him and asked him if he had any change because I needed to make a phone call. He refused to look at me. Not once did he make eye contact with me. He dug for change in his right pocket and proceeded to give me money. Of course, I could not take it so when I explained I was doing this for a class at school; he said, "No that's okay take the money." He kept trying to walk away
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replaced by an interest in chemistry and natural philosophy, inspired by the charismatic M. Waldman. The essence of this whole experiment that Frankenstein pursues with a "mad-man like" fervor is in accordance with the way science was being used as another tool for feeding the imperialistic ego in Man. "..I pursued nature to her hiding places." Frankenstein utters these words when he is in the middle of his 'experiment' to re-animate matter. He is re-iterating what his professor M. Waldman had described the practitioners of modern chemistry-"…the modern masters promise very little…but these philosophers…have indeed performed miracles. They penetrate into the recesses of nature
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removal electrons. The addition of electrons would result in a negative charge, and deficiency in electrons would result in a positive charge. This theory of the motion of electrons is still in effect nowadays for chemistry, explaining chemical reactions. The fault in JJ's model lay in placement of the electrons. His model presented a rough idea of an atom for scientists, but failed to explain various experiment. This resulted in his model rapidly becoming obsolete.
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It is the year 2010. As you pick up your daily issue of The New York Times, you begin to read some of the articles on the front page. The top story of the paper reads, "Germany Wins All Gold Medals at the Olympic Games: Is Cloning in Competitive Events Fair?" Other interesting articles reported on the front page include: "Rock Star and Lover's Nuclear Transplanted Child is Born" and "Former President George Bush's Cloned Heart Transplant A Success." All of these articles on the front page show how much cloning has become a more apparent in our lives. This manipulation of the human body has now become more than an experiment. Its results are shown to be successful, resulting in people to
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pounds trampled on the plots every seven days for a interval of six weeks at 600 passes per plot on the low intensity plots and 2400 for the high intensity plots, and no passes on the controls.The materials collected from the plots were air-dried, oven-dried, weighed and compared. Soil cores were also taken before the experiment and after and they were compared.The results of the study found that the type of sole on the boots did not have a great impact on the soil, but was due to the weight of the hikers. Also, the effect of low or high intensity had no effect either. The study led the author to believe that the mor humus layer was broken down by the weight of the hikers and released to the surface water. He felt that due to dry conditions this result might have been higher than expected, than if the soil had been wetter.The author of this study did not state a specific recommendation, but leads us to believe that sole type should not be considered when looking at the impact hiking has on soil damage.
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titrate vinegar, it is possible to determine the amount of acetic acid. The main three things from this experiment are: to determine the concentration of vinegar, to verify the description on the product labels, practice the chemical testing technique of titration.The balanced chemical equation for the neutralization of acetic acid with NaOH is:Safety notes:Wear safety glasses and if available. NaOH is corrosive to flesh and can cause blindness. Wash up spills immediately using large amounts of water. Rinse your hands under running water if you come in contact with the NaOH solution. Wash your hands upon completion of the lab.Materials:Lab apron eye protectionNaOH(aq) vinegarPhenolphthalein wash
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Fermentation has been used for thousands of years for raising bread, fermenting wine and brewing beer etc. The products of the fermentation of sugar by baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide causes bread to rise and gives effervescent drinks their bubbles. This action of yeast on sugar is used to carbonate beverages, which what you see in your soda and champagne thats all of the bubbles.To preform this experiment you must set up a fermentation in a closed system and capture the generated carbon dioxide to carbonate root beer. You may of course adjust the quantities of sugar . The equipment you shall use is a clean 2 liter plastic soft
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', or 'underdeveloped' its people may be, is as complex and highly organized as any other language spoken by a 'civilized' people. There is no intrinsically 'richer' or 'purer' language, because each language serves the functions needed by its speakers. The linguist deals with all languages equally with the aim to construct a general theory of the structure of the language.Second, linguistics is basically an empirical, not a speculative or intuitive, discipline in the sense that it examines specific data (e.g. speech and writing), and proceeds by verifiable and justifiable operations. It relies on observation and experiment, and uses formalized principles and a theory capable of formulation
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solutions in the beaker.Preform the Benedict's test for the presence of sugar in the solution.Review your results in table 3.1 and draw a conclusion in the discussion section.Results:
Color filter Benedicts test
-4mL pipette of glucose
-4mL of starch
Milky white/ clearish
-150mL of water
Conclusion:In this experiment we observed that the concentration inside the dialysis bag (the starch) is the biggest molecule (hypertonic) therefore the iodine, the smallest molecule (hypotonic) is trying to enter the dialysis bag to establish the equilibrium causing a color change to the solutions.
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greater pull towards the earth. Aristotelian tradition said that one could work out all the laws that govern the universe by pure thought: so there was no need to check the observation. So no one until Galileo bothered to see whether bodies of different weight did in fact fall at different speeds. It is said that Galileo was the one who established that Aristotle's belief was false by dropping weights from the leaning tower of Pisa. Galileo did the same experiment as Aristotle and found out that heavy bodies fall vertically, but it is easier to observe because the speeds are smaller. Galileo points out that each body increased its speed at the same rate, no matter what its weight was. Newton used Galileo's assessments. This idea was first stated in Newton's Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, and is known as Newton's first law. His law states that the body will accelerate , or change its speed, at a rate that is proportional.